Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Bell, J. R., Alderson, L. J., Izera, D., Kruger, T., Parker, S. J., Pickup, J., Shortall, C. R., Taylor, M. S., Verrier, P. J. and Harrington, R. 2015. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids. Journal of Animal Ecology. 84 (1), pp. 21-34.

AuthorsBell, J. R., Alderson, L. J., Izera, D., Kruger, T., Parker, S. J., Pickup, J., Shortall, C. R., Taylor, M. S., Verrier, P. J. and Harrington, R.
Abstract

Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 122-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014, the RIS celebrated its 50th anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first British annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. Our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these using life-history traits. We then highlight emerging pests using accumulation patterns. Linear and nonlinear mixed-effect models estimated the average rate of change per annum and effects of climate on annual counts, first and last flights and length of flight season since 1965. Two climate drivers were used: the accumulated day degrees above 16 degrees C (ADD16) indicated the potential for migration during the aphid season; the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signalled the severity of the winter before migration took place. All 55 species studied had earlier first flight trends at rate of =-0611SE 0015daysyear(-1). Of these species, 49% had earlier last flights, but the average species effect appeared relatively stationary (=-0010SE 0022daysyear(-1)). Most species (85%) showed increasing duration of their flight season (=0336 +/- SE 0026daysyear(-1)), even though only 54% increased their log annual count (=0002 +/- SE <0001year(-1)). The ADD16 and NAO were shown to drive patterns in aphid phenology in a spatiotemporal context. Early in the year when the first aphids were migrating, the effect of the winter NAO was highly significant. Further into the year, ADD16 was a strong predictor. Latitude had a near linear effect on first flights, whereas longitude produced a generally less-clear effect on all responses. Aphids that are anholocyclic (permanently parthenogenetic) or are monoecious (non-host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis.

KeywordsEcology; Zoology
Year of Publication2015
JournalJournal of Animal Ecology
Journal citation84 (1), pp. 21-34
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12282
PubMed ID25123260
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Funder project or codeDelivering Sustainable Systems (SS) [ISPG]
The Rothamsted Insect Survey [2012-2017]
Publisher's version
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online14 Aug 2014
Publication process dates
Accepted08 Aug 2014
ISSN00218790
PublisherWiley
Copyright licenseCC BY

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