Discerning the difference between lumens and scalariform perforation plates in impeding water flow in single xylem vessels and vessel networks

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Gao, Y., Yang, Z., Wang, G., Sun, J. and Zhang, X. X. 2020. Discerning the difference between lumens and scalariform perforation plates in impeding water flow in single xylem vessels and vessel networks . Frontiers in Plant Science. 11 (March 20), p. Article 246.

AuthorsGao, Y., Yang, Z., Wang, G., Sun, J. and Zhang, X. X.
Abstract

The geometrical structure and spatial arrangement of lumens, bordered pits and scalariform perforation plates in xylem vessels modulate water flow from roots to leaves. Understanding their respective hydraulic functions is essential to unveil how plants regulate their hydraulic networks to facilitate the ascent of sap under biotic and abiotic stresses but is challenging because of the opaque nature of the vessel networks and water flow within them. We made the first-ever effort to discern the difference between lumens and scalariform perforation plates in cotton in impeding water flow in single vessels and vessel networks using x-ray tomography and pore-scale numerical simulation. Three-dimensional structures of xylem vessels in the stem of two cotton cultivars were acquired non-invasively using X-ray computed tomography at high spatial resolution, and a lattice Boltzmann model was developed to simulate water flow through the xylem networks at micrometre scale. The detailed water velocity and pressure simulated using the model were used to calculate the hydraulic resistance caused by the lumens and the scalariform perforation plates in individual vessels and the vessel networks of the two cotton cultivars. The results showed that the hydraulic resistance spiked whenever water flowed across a perforation plate and that the overall hydraulic resistance caused by the perforation plates in an individual vessel accounted for approximately 54% of the total resistance of the vessel. We also calculated the hydraulic conductance of individual vessels and vessel networks using the simulated water velocity and pressure at micrometre scale and compared it with those estimated from the Hagen Poiseulle (HP) equation as commonly used in the literature by approximating the xylem vessels in the cotton as isolated tubes. While it was found that the HP equation overestimated the hydraulic conductance by more than 200%, the overestimate was largely due to the incapability of the HP equation to represent the perforation plates rather than its approximation of the irregular vessels by circular tubes.

KeywordsX-ray computed tomography; Lattice Boltzmann model; Scalariform perforation plates; Lumens; Hydraulic resistance
Year of Publication2020
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Journal citation11 (March 20), p. Article 246
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.3389/fpls.2020.00246
Open accessPublished as green open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
National Natural Science Foundation of China
BBSRC Newton funding
Funder project or codeS2N - Soil to Nutrition - Work package 1 (WP1) - Optimising nutrient flows and pools in the soil-plant-biota system
Publisher's version
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online10 Mar 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted17 Feb 2020
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
ISSN1664-462X

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