Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Manure experimental site in Devon, 2011-12

N - Datasets

Cardenas, L. M., Misselbrook, T. H. and Donovan, N. 2017. Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Manure experimental site in Devon, 2011-12. Freshwater Biological Assoc. https://doi.org/10.17865/ghgno548

AuthorsCardenas, L. M., Misselbrook, T. H. and Donovan, N.
Abstract

At Rothamsted Research - North Wyke near Okehampton, south-west England (clay loam topsoil texture), direct N2O-N emissions were measured from replicated (x3) plots (6 m x 12 m) arranged in a randomised block design. Dairy cattle slurry (c.30 m3/ha) and cattle FYM (25 t/ha) were applied to permanent grassland in autumn (late-September) and spring (mid-April). The cattle slurry was applied using watering cans simulating trailing shoe and surface broadcast application and the solid manure was spread by hand. In two separate treatments, the commercially available nitrification inhibitor - dicyandiamide (DCD) was applied by knapsack sprayer to the sward after slurry application by surface broadcast and trailing shoe to give a DCD application rate of 10 kg /ha (6.5 kg N/ha). An untreated control treatment was included where no manure was applied. Following manure application, measurements of direct N2O-N were made over c.12 months, using 5 static chambers (0.8 m2 total surface area) per plot and analysed by gas chromatography. In a separate area of the plot, a wind tunnel technique was used (one per plot) to measure ammonia-N emissions for 7 days after each manure application. Grass yields and N offtakes were measured following a grass cut in late-July 2012. The Devon, 2011-12 manure experiment contains data sets of; annual nitrous oxide emissions, annual nitrous oxide emission factors, total ammonia loss, soil moisture, top soil mineral nitrogen (selected dates), temperature, rainfall and associated crop (grass yield and nitrogen offtakes) and soil measurements.

Year of Publication2017
PublisherFreshwater Biological Assoc
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.17865/ghgno548
Keywordsnitrous oxide
ammonia
farmyard manure
slurry
cattle
slurry spreaders
nitrification inhibitors
grassland soils
clay soils
Publication dates
Online05 Apr 2017
FunderDepartment of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Scottish Government
Welsh Government
Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), Northern Ireland
Data files
File Access Level
Open
Data collection period27 Sep 2011 to end of 18 Apr 2013
Geographic location
Devon, South West England, UK
Geographic region bounding box
(50.68, -4.04) to (50.85, -3.75)
Geographic coverageDevon, South West England, UK
Data collection method

Direct N2O emissions were measured with five static flux chambers (40 cm wide x 40 cm long x 25 cm high) per plot, covering a total surface area of 0.8 m2. The chambers were of white (i.e. reflective) PVC and un-vented with an expanded neoprene rubber strip (Portmere rubber, SO14 5QZ) to form an air-tight seal following chamber enclosure with a lid (Cardenas et al., 2010). Chambers were pushed into the soil up to a depth of 5 cm and remained in place throughout the experiment, except during manure application and grass cutting when chambers were removed, locations were marked, and chambers were re-instated to the same position as prior to removal. Chambers remained open except for a short time on each sampling day. On that day, ten samples of ambient air were taken to represent time zero (T0) N2O samples. From each chamber, after a 40-minute enclosure period (T40) a headspace sample was taken using a 50-ml syringe. Using a double needle system the sample was flushed though a pre-evacuated 20-22 ml glass vial fitted with a chloro-butyl rubber septum and held at atmospheric pressure. The N2O flux was calculated using an assumed linear increase in N2O concentration from the ambient N2O concentration (T0) to the N2O concentration inside the chamber after 40-minutes enclosure (T40) (Chadwick et al., 2014). Throughout each experiment, the linearity of emissions through time was checked routinely from three chambers located on the plots where cattle slurry had been surface broadcast applied. A minimum of five samples were taken from each chamber at 15 min intervals commencing at closure i.e. T0 and spanning the T40 sampling time. In order to minimise the effect of diurnal variation, gas sampling was carried out between 10:00 am and 14:00 pm and where possible between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm as suggested by IAEA (1992) and referred to in the IPCC good practice guidance (IPCC, 2000). Gas samples were analysed as soon as possible after collection and not stored for more than 2 days (to minimise potential leakage) using gas chromatographs fitted with an electron-capture detector and an automated sample injection system. The gas chromatographs were calibrated on a daily basis using certified N2O standard gas mixtures. An exchange of samples of chamber air and standard gas mixtures between labs from the different research organisations involved in the InveN2Ory programme of experiments who operated the GCs were carried out, to avoid the possibility of any bias in the results towards high or low values. Following manure application, N2O flux measurements were carried out for 5 days immediately following manure application, daily for a further 5 days during the next week, twice weekly for the next two weeks, every other week over the next c.four months, decreasing in frequency to monthly until the end of the 12 month sampling period. For each manure application timing, this sampling schedule resulted in an annual total of c.30 sampling days for autumn and spring applications, starting from the day of the application. Measurements were taken over 12 months to follow IPCC good practice guidance and so that the results were directly comparable to the IPCC 2006 methodology default emission factor.

Data preparation and processing activities

Nitrous oxide fluxes from the five replicate chambers per plot were averaged. Cumulative fluxes were calculated using the trapezoidal rule to interpolate fluxes between sampling points.

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