Bart Fraaije

NameBart Fraaije
Job titleSenior Research Scientist - Plant Pathology
Email addressbart.fraaije@rothamsted.ac.uk
DepartmentBiointeractions and Crop Protection
Research clusterBCP: Pesticide Resistance
ORCIDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8176-2258
Preferred citationFraaije, B. A.
OfficeHarpenden

Research outputs

First application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid identification of mating type in the heterothallic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

King, K. M., Hawkins, N. J., Atkins, S. L., Dyer, P. S., West, J. S. and Fraaije, B. A. 2019. First application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid identification of mating type in the heterothallic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus . Mycoses.

Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Benzimidazole-Resistant β-Tubulin Variants of Botrytis cinerea using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

Duan, Y. B., Yang, Y., Wang, J . X., Chen, C. J., Steinberg, G., Fraaije, B. A. and Zhou, M. G. 2018. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Benzimidazole-Resistant β-Tubulin Variants of Botrytis cinerea using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification. Plant Disease. 102 (10), pp. 2016-2024.

Impact of epoxiconazole on Fusarium head blight control, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat

Duan, Y., Xiao, X., Li, T., Chen, W., Wang, J., Fraaije, B. A. and Zhou, M. G. 2018. Impact of epoxiconazole on Fusarium head blight control, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 152, pp. 138-147.

Simultaneous detection of multiple benzimidazole resistant β-tubulin variants of Botrytis cinerea using loop mediated isothermal amplification

Duan, Y., Yang, Y., Wang, J. X., Chen, C. J., Steinberg, G., Fraaije, B. A. and Zhou, M. G. 2018. Simultaneous detection of multiple benzimidazole resistant β-tubulin variants of Botrytis cinerea using loop mediated isothermal amplification. Plant Disease. 102 (10), pp. 2016-2024.

Development and application of a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detecting moderately carbendazim‐resistant isolates in Botrytis cinerea

Duan, Y. B., Yang, Y., Li, M. X., Fraaije, B. A. and Zhou, M. G. 2018. Development and application of a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detecting moderately carbendazim‐resistant isolates in Botrytis cinerea. Annals of Applied Biology. 172 (3), pp. 355-365.

Non‐target site SDHI resistance is present as standing genetic variation in field populations of Zymoseptoria tritici

Yamashita, M. and Fraaije, B. A. 2018. Non‐target site SDHI resistance is present as standing genetic variation in field populations of Zymoseptoria tritici. Pest Management Science. 74 (3), pp. 672-681.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection of Pyrenopeziza brassicae (light leaf spot of brassicas)

King, K. M., Krivova, V., Canning, G. G. M., Hawkins, N. J., Kaczmarek, A. M., Perryman, S. A. M., Dyer, P. S., Fraaije, B. A. and West, J. S. 2018. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection of Pyrenopeziza brassicae (light leaf spot of brassicas). Plant Pathology. 67 (1), pp. 167-174.

Changes in field dose–response curves for demethylation inhibitor (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides against Zymoseptoria tritici, related to laboratory sensitivity phenotyping and genotyping assays

Blake, J. J., Gosling, P., Fraaije, B. A., Burnett, F. J., Knight, S. M., Kildea, S. and Paveley, N. D. 2018. Changes in field dose–response curves for demethylation inhibitor (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides against Zymoseptoria tritici, related to laboratory sensitivity phenotyping and genotyping assays. Pest Management Science. 74 (2), pp. 302-313.

Fitness Penalties in the Evolution of Fungicide Resistance

Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2018. Fitness Penalties in the Evolution of Fungicide Resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 56, pp. 339-360.

Arable Crop Disease Alert System - AHDB Project Report 594

West, J. S., Canning, G., King, K. M., Fraaije, B. A. and Wili, S. 2018. Arable Crop Disease Alert System - AHDB Project Report 594. Stoneleigh HGCA/AHDB, Stoneleigh.

Strategies to delay the development of fungicide resistance : Alternation , mixtures or restricting the number of treatments?

Young, C., Van Den Bosch, F., Fraaije, B. A., Burnett, F., Knight, S., Gosling, P. and Paveley, N. 2017. Strategies to delay the development of fungicide resistance : Alternation , mixtures or restricting the number of treatments? Hull, R. I. C., Jellis, G., May, M., Miller, P., Moss, S. R., Nicholls, C. and Orson, J. (ed.) In : Crop Production in Southern Britain 2017, AAB 134. Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick .

Dose-dependent selection drives lineage replacement during the experimental evolution of SDHI fungicide resistance in Zymoseptoria tritici

Gutierrez-Alonso, O., Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J., Shaw, M. W. and Fraaije, B. A. 2017. Dose-dependent selection drives lineage replacement during the experimental evolution of SDHI fungicide resistance in Zymoseptoria tritici. Evolutionary Applications. 10 (10), pp. 1055-1066.

Azole sensitivity in Leptosphaeria pathogens of oilseed rape: the role of lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase

Sewell, T. R., Hawkins, N. J., Stotz, H. U., Huang, Y. J., Kelly, S. L., Kelly, D. E., Fraaije, B. A. and Fitt, B. D. L. 2017. Azole sensitivity in Leptosphaeria pathogens of oilseed rape: the role of lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. Scientific Reports. 7 (15849).

Predicting Resistance by Mutagenesis: Lessons from 45 Years of MBC Resistance

Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2016. Predicting Resistance by Mutagenesis: Lessons from 45 Years of MBC Resistance. Frontiers in Microbiology. 7.

Endophytic bacterial community composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is determined by plant tissue type, developmental stage and soil nutrient availability

Robinson, R. J., Fraaije, B. A., Clark, I. M., Jackson, R. W., Hirsch, P. R. and Mauchline, T. H. 2016. Endophytic bacterial community composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is determined by plant tissue type, developmental stage and soil nutrient availability. Plant and Soil. 405 (1-2), pp. 381-396.

Resistance management: we know why but so we know how?

Lucas, J. A. 2016. Resistance management: we know why but so we know how? in: Deising, H. B., Fraaije, B. A., Mehl, A., Oerke, E. C., Sierotzhi, H. and Stammler, G. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds Vol. VIII Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Braunschweig.

Effector biology of Zymoseptoria tritici during interactions with wheat and with non-host plants

Kettles, G. J., King, R., Hooper, J., Skinner, W., Hargreaves, J., Kanyuka, K., Fraaije, B. A. and Rudd, J. J. 2016. Effector biology of Zymoseptoria tritici during interactions with wheat and with non-host plants. IS-MPMI XVII Congress, Portland, Oregon, USA, 17-21 July, 2016. pp. Abstract Number S6-3

Proposal for a unified nomenclature for target-site mutations associated with resistance to fungicides.

Mair, W., Lopez-Ruiz, F., Stammler, G ., Clark, W., Burnett, F., Hollomon, D., Ishii, H., Thind, T. S., Brown, J. K., Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Shaw, M., Fillinger, S., Walker, A. S., Mellado, E., Schnabel, G., Mehl, A. and Oliver, R. P. 2016. Proposal for a unified nomenclature for target-site mutations associated with resistance to fungicides. Pest Management Science. 72 (8), pp. 1449-1459.

Wheat seed embryo excision enables the creation of axenic seedlings and Koch's postulates testing of putative bacterial endophytes

Robinson, R. J., Fraaije, B. A., Clark, I. M., Jackson, R. W., Hirsch, P. R. and Mauchline, T. H. 2016. Wheat seed embryo excision enables the creation of axenic seedlings and Koch's postulates testing of putative bacterial endophytes. Scientific Reports. 6, p. 25581.

Sigatoka Disease Complex of Banana in Brazil: Management Practices and Future Directions

Brito Silva Darosci, F., Fraaije, B. A. and Miller RNG 2015. Sigatoka Disease Complex of Banana in Brazil: Management Practices and Future Directions. Outlooks on Pest Management. 26 (2), pp. 78-81.

The use of mathematical models to guide fungicide resistance management decisions

Van Den Bosch, F., Fraaije, B. A., Oliver, R., Van Den Berg, F. and Paveley, N. 2015. The use of mathematical models to guide fungicide resistance management decisions. in: Hollomon, D. W. and Ishii, H. (ed.) Fungicide resistance in plant pathogens Springer, Tokyo. pp. 49-62

Evidence-based resistance management: a review of existing evidence

Van Den Bosch, F., Paveley, N., Fraaije, B. A., Van Den Berg, F. and Oliver, R. 2015. Evidence-based resistance management: a review of existing evidence. in: Hollomon, D. W. and Ishii, H. (ed.) Fungicide resistance in plant pathogens Springer, Tokyo. pp. 63-76

Airborne sampling and optical sensing methods for macro scale mapping

West, J. S., Canning, G., Heard, S., Fraaije, B. A., Bonants, P., Van Gent-Pelzer, M., Nicolaisen, M., Justesen, A. F. and Wili, S. G. 2015. Airborne sampling and optical sensing methods for macro scale mapping. Abstracts IPM Innovation in Europe, Poznan, 14-16 January 2015 . pp. 57

The evolution of fungicide resistance

Lucas, J. A., Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2015. The evolution of fungicide resistance. in: Sariaslani, S. and Gadd, G. M. (ed.) Advances in Applied Microbiology Vol.90 Elsevier.

Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: modes of resistance and development of CYP51 mutations

Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2014. Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: modes of resistance and development of CYP51 mutations. 248th National Meeting of the Amercian Chemical Society (ACS) 10-14 August , San Francisco, CA, 2014. American Chemical Society (ACS).

The impact of tissue type, growth stage and fertilizers on the community structure of cultured bacterial wheat endophytes in the Broadbalk experiment

Robinson, R. R., Fraaije, B. A., Clark, I. M., Jackson, R. W., Hirsch, P. R. and Mauchline, T. H. 2014. The impact of tissue type, growth stage and fertilizers on the community structure of cultured bacterial wheat endophytes in the Broadbalk experiment. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect azole-insensitive CYP51- overexpressing strains of Zymoseptoria tritici

Fraaije, B. A. 2014. Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect azole-insensitive CYP51- overexpressing strains of Zymoseptoria tritici. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

Evolution and spread of azole-insensitive Zymoseptoria tritici field isolates in the UK

Fraaije, B. A., Atkins, S., Luo, J., Diez De La Fuente, P. and Hawkins, N. J. 2014. Evolution and spread of azole-insensitive Zymoseptoria tritici field isolates in the UK. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

The role of multiple CYP51 paralogues in intrinsic and acquired azole sensitivity differences

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J. and Fan, J. 2014. The role of multiple CYP51 paralogues in intrinsic and acquired azole sensitivity differences. in: Fraaije, B. A., Deising, H. B. and Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds. Vol. 7 Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Braunschweig. pp. 97-102

Alterations in the predicted regulatory and coding regions of the sterol 14alpha-demethylase gene (CYP51) confer decreased azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae

Carter, H. E., Fraaije, B. A., West, J. S., Kelly, S. L., Mehl, A., Shaw, M. W. and Cools, H. J. 2014. Alterations in the predicted regulatory and coding regions of the sterol 14alpha-demethylase gene (CYP51) confer decreased azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae. Molecular Plant Pathology. 15 (5), pp. 513-522.

Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: modes of resistance and development of CPY51 mutations

Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2014. Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: modes of resistance and development of CPY51 mutations. Abstracts 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, San Francisco, 10-14 August 2014 . pp. 234

Paralog re-emergence: a novel, historically contingent mechanism in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J., Sierotzki, H., Shaw, M. W., Knogge, W., Kelly, S. L., Kelly, D. E. and Fraaije, B. A. 2014. Paralog re-emergence: a novel, historically contingent mechanism in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Molecular Biology And Evolution. 31 (7), pp. 1793-1802.

Sustainable crop protection: the storm before the calm?

Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2014. Sustainable crop protection: the storm before the calm? Proceedings Dundee Conference Crop Protection in Northern Britain, Dundee, 25-26 February 2014 . pp. 61-70

Bacterial endophytes in wheat (Triticum aestivum): isolation, characterisation and bio-prospecting

Robinson, R., Mauchline, T. H., Hirsch, P. R., Jackson, R., Frost, H. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Bacterial endophytes in wheat (Triticum aestivum): isolation, characterisation and bio-prospecting. Schneider, C. (ed.) Abstracts 5th International Symposium on Plant Protection and Plant Health in Europe: Endophytes for Plant Protection: the State of the Art, Berlin, 26-29 May 2013 . DPG, Braunschweig. pp. 4-6

New developments in identification and quantification of airborne inoculum

West, J. S., Heard, S., Canning, G., Fraaije, B. A. and Hammond-Kosack, K. E. 2013. New developments in identification and quantification of airborne inoculum.

CPY51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. CPY51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune. Abstracts 14th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, Lisbon, 19-24 August 2013 . pp. 859

Mapping the adaptive landscape of Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 under selection by azole fungicides

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Mapping the adaptive landscape of Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 under selection by azole fungicides. Abstracts 14th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, Lisbon, 19-24 August 2013 . pp. 19

Constraints on the evolution of azole resistance in plant pathogenic fungi

Cools, H. J., Hawkins, N. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Constraints on the evolution of azole resistance in plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology. 62 (Suppl. 1), pp. 36-42.

Simultaneous real-time PCR detection of Fusarium asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F. graminearum species complex

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Waalwijk, C., Van Der Lee, T., Fan, J., Atkins, S., West, J. S. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Simultaneous real-time PCR detection of Fusarium asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F. graminearum species complex. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 166, pp. 148-154.

Detection and molecular characterisation of Pyrenopeziza brassicae isolates resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates

Carter, H. E., Cools, H. J., West, J. S., Shaw, M. W. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Detection and molecular characterisation of Pyrenopeziza brassicae isolates resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates. Pest Management Science. 69 (9), pp. 1040-1048.

One step ahead? The evolution of fungicide resistance in Septoria leaf blotch of wheat

Lucas, J. A., Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. One step ahead? The evolution of fungicide resistance in Septoria leaf blotch of wheat. Abstracts Society for General Microbiology Autumn Conference, Brighton, 2-4 September 2013 . pp. 13

Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species (ECDC Technical Report)

Kleinkauf, N., Verweij, P. E., Arendrup, M. C., Donnelly, P. J., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Fraaije, B. A., Melchers, W. J. G., Adriaenssens, N., Kema, G. H. J., Ullmann, A., Bowyer, P. and Denning, D. W. 2013. Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species (ECDC Technical Report). ECDC, Stockholm. doi:10.2900/76274

CYP51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. CYP51 paralogues and azole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune. Chinese Society for Plant Pathology.

Evolution and spread of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates overexpressing CYP51 or carrying different CYP51 variants in response to azole fungicide applications

Fraaije, B. A., Atkins, S., Luo, J., De La Fuente, P. D., Hawkins, N. J. and Cools, H. J. 2013. Evolution and spread of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates overexpressing CYP51 or carrying different CYP51 variants in response to azole fungicide applications. Chinese Society for Plant Pathology.

Update on the evolution and selection for azole and Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide insensitivity in UK Mycosphaerella graminicola populations

Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Update on the evolution and selection for azole and Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide insensitivity in UK Mycosphaerella graminicola populations. Chinese Society for Plant Pathology.

Detection of azole insensitive CYP51 over-expressing strains of Mycosphaerella graminicola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays

Fraaije, B. A. and Cools, H. J. 2013. Detection of azole insensitive CYP51 over-expressing strains of Mycosphaerella graminicola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. Chinese Society for Plant Pathology.

Genus-specific CYP51C of Fusarium graminearum identified as a novel CYP51 rather than azole fungicide target sterol 14alpha-demethylases

Fan, J., Urban, M., Parker, J. E., Brewer, H. C., Kelly, S. L., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Fraaije, B. A., Liu, X. and Cools, H. J. 2013. Genus-specific CYP51C of Fusarium graminearum identified as a novel CYP51 rather than azole fungicide target sterol 14alpha-demethylases. Chinese Society for Plant Pathology.

Prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio activities against Candida albicans sterol 14-alpha-demethylase

Parker, J. E., Warrilow, A. G. S., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Rigdova, K., Griffiths, W. J., Kelly, D. E. and Kelly, S. L. 2013. Prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio activities against Candida albicans sterol 14-alpha-demethylase. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 79, pp. 1639-1645.

Characterization of the sterol 14alpha-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function

Fan, J., Urban, M., Parker, J. E., Brewer, H. C., Kelly, S. L., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Fraaije, B. A., Liu, X. and Cools, H. J. 2013. Characterization of the sterol 14alpha-demethylases of Fusarium graminearum identifies a novel genus-specific CYP51 function. New Phytologist. 198 (3), pp. 821-835.

Update on mechanisms of azole resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola and implications for future control

Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2013. Update on mechanisms of azole resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola and implications for future control. Pest Management Science. 69 (2), pp. 150-155.

Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the decline in sensitivity to DMI fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations

Fraaije, B. A. and Cools, H. J. 2012. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the decline in sensitivity to DMI fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

Reduced azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopziza brassicae

Carter, H. E., Cools, H. J., West, J. S., Shaw, M., Mehl, A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2012. Reduced azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopziza brassicae. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

Detection and quantification of airborne inoculum of Pyrenopeziza brassicae in Polish and UK winter oilseed rape crops by real-time PCR assays

Karolewski, Z., Kaczmarek, J., Jedryczka, M., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A. and Latunde-Dada, A. O. 2012. Detection and quantification of airborne inoculum of Pyrenopeziza brassicae in Polish and UK winter oilseed rape crops by real-time PCR assays. Grana. 51, pp. 270-279.

Overexpression of the sterol 14alpha-demethylase gene (MgCYP51) in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates confers a novel azole fungicide sensitivity phenotype

Cools, H. J., Bayon, C., Atkins, S., Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2012. Overexpression of the sterol 14alpha-demethylase gene (MgCYP51) in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates confers a novel azole fungicide sensitivity phenotype. Pest Management Science. 68 (7), pp. 1034-1040.

Genetic basis of control of Rynchosporium secalis infection and symptom expression in barley

Looseley, M. E., Newton, A. C., Atkins, S. D., Fitt, B. D. L., Fraaije, B. A., Thomas, W. T. B., Keith, R., Macaulay, M., Lynott, J. and Harrap, D. 2012. Genetic basis of control of Rynchosporium secalis infection and symptom expression in barley. Euphytica. 184, pp. 47-56.

Risk assessment studies on succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, the new weapons in the battle to control Septoria leaf blotch in wheat

Fraaije, B. A., Bayon, C., Atkins, S., Cools, H. J., Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, M. W. 2012. Risk assessment studies on succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, the new weapons in the battle to control Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. Molecular Plant Pathology. 13 (3), pp. 263-275.

Resistance to azole fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola: mechanisms and management

Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2012. Resistance to azole fungicides in Mycosphaerella graminicola: mechanisms and management. in: Thind, T. S. (ed.) Fungicide resistance in crop protection: risk and management CABI International, Wallingford, Oxon (CABI). pp. 64-77

Development of QoI resistance in Ramularia collo-cygni populations

Fountaine, J. M., Burnett, F. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2011. Development of QoI resistance in Ramularia collo-cygni populations. Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds VI . DPG, Braunschweig. pp. 199-202

Molecular mechanisms of altered triazole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J., Shaw, M. W., Sierotzki, H. and Fraaije, B. A. 2011. Molecular mechanisms of altered triazole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis. Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds VI . DPG, Braunschwieg. pp. 129-134

The CYP51C gene, a novel and useful phylogenetic marker to distinguish different Fusarium species on cereals

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Loza-Reyes, E., Rogers, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2011. The CYP51C gene, a novel and useful phylogenetic marker to distinguish different Fusarium species on cereals. Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds VI . DPG, Braunschweig. pp. 413-416

Functional characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola sterol 14alpha-demethylase variants resistant to azole fungicides

Cools, H. J., Parker, J. E., Kelly, D. E., Lucas, J. A., Kelly, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2011. Functional characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola sterol 14alpha-demethylase variants resistant to azole fungicides. Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds VI . DPG, Braunschweig. pp. 123-128

Molecular modelling of the emergence of azole resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola

Mullins, J. G. L., Parker, J. E., Cools, H. J., Togawa, R. C., Lucas, J. A., Fraaije, B. A., Kelly, D. E. and Kelly, S. L. 2011. Molecular modelling of the emergence of azole resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola. PLOS ONE. 6, p. e20973 (11pp).

Impact of recently emerged sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) variants of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity

Cools, H. J., Mullins, J. G. L., Fraaije, B. A., Parker, J. E., Kelly, D. E., Lucas, J. A. and Kelly, S. L. 2011. Impact of recently emerged sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) variants of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77, pp. 3830-3837.

Derivation and testing of a model to predict selection for fungicide resistance

Hobbelen, P. H. F., Paveley, N. D., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A. and Van Den Bosch, F. 2011. Derivation and testing of a model to predict selection for fungicide resistance. Plant Pathology. 60 (2), pp. 304-313.

Mechanism of binding of prothioconazole to Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 differs from that of other azole antifungals

Parker, J. E., Warrilow, A. G. S., Cools, H. J., Martel, C. M., Nes, W. D., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Kelly, D. E. and Kelly, S. L. 2011. Mechanism of binding of prothioconazole to Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 differs from that of other azole antifungals. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77, pp. 1460-1465.

The use of a CYP51C gene based on PCR-RFLP assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Fusarium avenaceum and F. tricinctum in wheat

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Atkins, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2011. The use of a CYP51C gene based on PCR-RFLP assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Fusarium avenaceum and F. tricinctum in wheat. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 145, pp. 370-374.

Impacts of changing air composition on severity of arable crop disease epidemics

Fitt, B. D. L., Fraaije, B. A., Chandramohan, P. and Shaw, M. W. 2011. Impacts of changing air composition on severity of arable crop disease epidemics. Plant Pathology. 60 (1), pp. 44-53.

Investigating altered triazole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis

Hawkins, N. D., Cools, H. J., Shaw, M. W., Sierotzki, H. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. Investigating altered triazole sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis. American Phytopathological Society (APS).

The CYP51C gene, a novel marker for phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium species

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Loza-Reyes, E., Rogers, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. The CYP51C gene, a novel marker for phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium species.

Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor resistance risk assessment studies on Mycosphaerella graminicola the causal agent of septoria leaf blotch

Bayon, C., Fraaije, M. W., Cools, H. J., Rogers, S. L., Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor resistance risk assessment studies on Mycosphaerella graminicola the causal agent of septoria leaf blotch.

Derivation and validation of a model to predict selection for fungicide resistance

Hobbelen, P. H., Paveley, N. D., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A. and Van Den Bosch, F. 2010. Derivation and validation of a model to predict selection for fungicide resistance.

The CYP51C gene, a reliable marker to resolve interspecific phylogenetic relationships within the Fusarium species complex and a novel target for species-specific PCR

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Loza-Reyes, E., Atkins, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. The CYP51C gene, a reliable marker to resolve interspecific phylogenetic relationships within the Fusarium species complex and a novel target for species-specific PCR. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 144, pp. 301-309.

Prothioconazole binds to Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 by a different mechanism compared to other azole antifungals

Parker, J. E., Warrilow, A., Cools, H. J., Martel, C. M., Nes, W. D., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Kelly, D. E. and Kelly, S. L. 2010. Prothioconazole binds to Mycosphaerella graminicola CYP51 by a different mechanism compared to other azole antifungals. Abstracts 10th International Symposium on Cytochrome P450 Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Woods Hole, 3-7 October 2010 .

CYP51 paralogues and azole fungicide sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis

Hawkins, N. J., Cools, H. J., Sierotzki, H., Shaw, M. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. CYP51 paralogues and azole fungicide sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis. Abstracts 10th International Symposium on Cytochrome P450 Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Woods Hole, 3-7 October 2010 .

Molecular mechanisms of altered fungicide sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis

Hawkins, N. D., Cools, H. J., Shaw, M. W., Sierotzki, H. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. Molecular mechanisms of altered fungicide sensitivity in Rhynchosporium secalis. Abstracts 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2010 . pp. 50

Evolutionary bi-stability in pathogen transmission mode

Van Den Bosch, F., Fraaije, B. A., Van Den Berg, F. and Shaw, M. W. 2010. Evolutionary bi-stability in pathogen transmission mode. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences. 277, pp. 1735-1742.

Effects of DMI fungicides on selection of CYP51 variants in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Fraaije, B. A., Rogers, S., Bayon, C., Cools, H. J. and Lucas, J. A. 2010. Effects of DMI fungicides on selection of CYP51 variants in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Abstracts 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2010 . pp. 84

Development of QO1 resistance in Ramularia collocygni populations

Fountaine, J. M., Burnett, F. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. Development of QO1 resistance in Ramularia collocygni populations. Abstracts 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2010 . pp. 136

The CYP51C gene, a novel and useful phylogenetic marker to distinguish different Fusarium species on cereals

Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Loza-Reyes, E., Rogers, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. The CYP51C gene, a novel and useful phylogenetic marker to distinguish different Fusarium species on cereals. Abstracts 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2010 . pp. 196

Heterologous expression of mutated eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) proteins of Mycosphaerella graminicola to assess effects on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function

Cools, H. J., Parker, J. E., Kelly, D. E., Lucas, J. A., Fraaije, B. A. and Kelly, S. L. 2010. Heterologous expression of mutated eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) proteins of Mycosphaerella graminicola to assess effects on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76, pp. 2866-2872.

Functional characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola sterol 14alpha-demethylase (MgCYP51) variants resistant to azole fungicides

Cools, H. J., Parker, J. E., Motteram, J., Kelly, D. E., Lucas, J. A., Rudd, J. J., Kelly, S. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. Functional characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola sterol 14alpha-demethylase (MgCYP51) variants resistant to azole fungicides. Abstracts 16th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2010 .

The role of seeds and airborne inoculum in the initiation of leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis) epidemics in winter barley

Fountaine, J. M., Shaw, M. W., Ward, E. and Fraaije, B. A. 2010. The role of seeds and airborne inoculum in the initiation of leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis) epidemics in winter barley. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), pp. 330-337.

Rynchosporium secalis: a historical perspective

Atkins, S. D., King, K. M., Fraaije, B. A. and Newton, A. C. 2010. Rynchosporium secalis: a historical perspective. Proceedings Dundee Conference on Crop Protection in Northern Britain, Dundee, 23-24 February 2010 . pp. 103-108

The epidemiological importance of asymptomatic infection of winter barley by Rhynchosporium secalis and its consequences for crop protection and breeding

Atkins, S. D., Fitt, B. D. L., Fraaije, B. A., Harvey, S., Lynott, J. and Newton, A. C. 2010. The epidemiological importance of asymptomatic infection of winter barley by Rhynchosporium secalis and its consequences for crop protection and breeding. Proceedings Dundee Conference on Crop Protection in Northern Britain, Dundee, 23-24 February 2010 . pp. 81-86

Identification and characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola secreted or surface-associated proteins with variable intragenic coding repeats

Rudd, J. J., Antoniw, J. F., Marshall, R., Motteram, J., Fraaije, B. A. and Hammond-Kosack, K. E. 2010. Identification and characterisation of Mycosphaerella graminicola secreted or surface-associated proteins with variable intragenic coding repeats. Fungal Genetics and Biology. 47, pp. 19-32.

Sterol content analysis suggests altered eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola adapted to azole fungicides

Bean, T. P., Cools, H. J., Lucas, J. A., Hawkins, N. D., Ward, J. L., Shaw, M. W. and Fraaije, B. A. 2009. Sterol content analysis suggests altered eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) activity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola adapted to azole fungicides. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 296, pp. 266-273.

Impact of proquinazid on appressorial development of the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp hordei

Gilbert, S. R., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Bailey, A. M. and Lucas, J. A. 2009. Impact of proquinazid on appressorial development of the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp hordei. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 94, pp. 127-132.

Understanding fungicide mixtures to control Rhynchosporium in barley and minimise resistance shifts. HGCA Project Report No. 436

Oxley, S. J. P., Burnett, F., Hunter, E,. A., Fraaije, B. A., Cooke, L. R., Mercer, P. C. and Gilchrist, A. 2008. Understanding fungicide mixtures to control Rhynchosporium in barley and minimise resistance shifts. HGCA Project Report No. 436. Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) London.

The final straw: crop archives and the recent history of cereal pathosystems

Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. The final straw: crop archives and the recent history of cereal pathosystems. Jellis, G. and Edwards, C. (ed.) Cereal pathosystems: papers from BSPP Presidential Meeting, London, 16-17 December 2008 . Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) London. pp. 103-115

Adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations to azole fungicides in the UK

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Motteram, J., Gilbert, S. R., Kim, S-H. and Lucas, J. A. 2008. Adaptation of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations to azole fungicides in the UK. Deising, H. B., Lyr, H., Russell, P. E., Kuck, K. H., Gisi, U. and Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds V: Proceedings 15th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium on Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, 2007 . Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Braunschweig. pp. 121-127

Re-contructing evolution of fungicide resistance and disease dynamics of cereal pathogens from crop archives

Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Re-contructing evolution of fungicide resistance and disease dynamics of cereal pathogens from crop archives.

Testing of fungicide activity enhancers using Septoria leaf blotch as model. Confidential report to industrial sponsor

Bean, T. P. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Testing of fungicide activity enhancers using Septoria leaf blotch as model. Confidential report to industrial sponsor.

Expression of genes encoding efflux proteins in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with sensitive or reduced triazole sensitivity phenotypes

Bean, T. P., Cools, H. J., Lucas, J. A. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Expression of genes encoding efflux proteins in Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with sensitive or reduced triazole sensitivity phenotypes. Deising, H. B., Lyr, H., Russell, P. E., Kuck, K. H., Gisi, U. and Dehne, H. W. (ed.) Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds V: Proceedings 15th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium on Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds, 2007 . Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Braunschweig. pp. 93-99

Asymptomatic infection of winter and spring barley by Rhynchosporium secalis: effects and implications for epidemiology and host resistance

Atkins, S. D., Stonard, J. F., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Fitt, B. D. L. and Newton, A. C. 2008. Asymptomatic infection of winter and spring barley by Rhynchosporium secalis: effects and implications for epidemiology and host resistance. Abstracts 10th International Barley Genetics Symposium (IBGS), Alexandria, 5-10 April 2008 .

The dynamics of Rynchosporium secalis in winter and spring barley and the role of inoculum sources

Atkins, S. D., Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A. and Fitt, B. D. L. 2008. The dynamics of Rynchosporium secalis in winter and spring barley and the role of inoculum sources.

Quantitative measurements of CYP51 alterations in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola using pyrosequencing

Motteram, J., Cools, H. J., Gilbert, S. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Quantitative measurements of CYP51 alterations in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola using pyrosequencing.

Dispersal of airborne spores from plant pahtogenic fungi in cereals

Havis, N., Fraaije, B. A. and Oxley, S. 2008. Dispersal of airborne spores from plant pahtogenic fungi in cereals.

Confidential report to Makhteshim Agan (UK) Ltd

Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Confidential report to Makhteshim Agan (UK) Ltd.

Demethylation inhibitor resistance in cereal pathogens and consequences of resistance management

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Motteram, J. and Lucas, J. A. 2008. Demethylation inhibitor resistance in cereal pathogens and consequences of resistance management.

Characterisation of mechanisms correlated with reduced azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Bean, T. P. and Lucas, J. A. 2008. Characterisation of mechanisms correlated with reduced azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola.

Impact of mutations in the CYP51 gene of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Bean, T. P. and Lucas, J. A. 2008. Impact of mutations in the CYP51 gene of Mycosphaerella graminicola on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function. Abstracts 7th International Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora Symposium, Ascona, 18-22 August 2008 .

Long-term dynamics in wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola

Shaw, M. W., Bearchell, S. J., Fitt, B. D. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Long-term dynamics in wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola.

Controlling Septoria: can azole fungicides be relied upon?

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Clark, B. and Lucas, J. A. 2008. Controlling Septoria: can azole fungicides be relied upon?

Are azole fungicides losing ground against Septoria wheat disease? Resistance mechanisms in Mycosphaerella graminicola

Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Are azole fungicides losing ground against Septoria wheat disease? Resistance mechanisms in Mycosphaerella graminicola. Pest Management Science. 64, pp. 681-684.

Long-term relationships between environment and abundance of wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola

Shaw, M. W., Bearchell, S. J., Fitt, B. D. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2008. Long-term relationships between environment and abundance of wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola. New Phytologist. 177 (1), pp. 229-238.

Molecular mechanisms associated with altered azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola

Cools, H. J., Bean, T. P., Motteram, J., Gilbert, S. R. and Fraaije, B. A. 2007. Molecular mechanisms associated with altered azole sensitivity in Mycosphaerella graminicola. Proceedings 16th International Plant Protection Congress, Glasgow, 15-18 October 2007 . pp. 406-407

Evolution of fungicide resistance in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Fraaije, B. A. 2007. Evolution of fungicide resistance in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Abstracts Resistance 2007, Harpenden, 16-18 April 2007 .

Effects of a strobilurin-based spray programme on disease control, green leaf area, yield and development of fungicide-resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola in Northern Ireland

Mccartney, C., Mercer, P. C., Cooke, L. R. and Fraaije, B. A. 2007. Effects of a strobilurin-based spray programme on disease control, green leaf area, yield and development of fungicide-resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola in Northern Ireland. Crop Protection. 26, pp. 1272-1280.

Transcriptome profiling on the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to an azole fungicide using cDNA arrays

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Bean, T. P., Antoniw, J. F. and Lucas, J. A. 2007. Transcriptome profiling on the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to an azole fungicide using cDNA arrays. Molecular Plant Pathology. 8 (5), pp. 639-651.

Dynamics of fungicide resistant alleles in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Fraaije, B. A. 2007. Dynamics of fungicide resistant alleles in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola.

Sterol content analysis of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with reduced sensitivity to triazole fungicides

Bean, T. P., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2007. Sterol content analysis of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates with reduced sensitivity to triazole fungicides.

A novel substitution 1381V in the sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) of Mycosphaerella graminicola is differentially selected by azole fungicides

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Kim, S-H., Motteram, J., Clark, W. S. and Lucas, J. A. 2007. A novel substitution 1381V in the sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) of Mycosphaerella graminicola is differentially selected by azole fungicides. Molecular Plant Pathology. 8 (3), pp. 245-254.

Application of real-time and multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to study leaf blotch epidemics in barley

Fountaine, J. M., Shaw, M. W., Napier, B., Ward, E. and Fraaije, B. A. 2007. Application of real-time and multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to study leaf blotch epidemics in barley. Phytopathology. 97, pp. 297-303.

Effects of Strobilurin fungicides on control of Septoria tritici blotch, green leaf area and yield of winter wheat in the light of fungicide resistance in Northern Ireland

Mccartney, C., Mercer, P. C., Cooke, L. R. and Fraaije, B. A. 2006. Effects of Strobilurin fungicides on control of Septoria tritici blotch, green leaf area and yield of winter wheat in the light of fungicide resistance in Northern Ireland. Fungicide Resistance: Are We Wiining the Battle but Losing the War? Aspects of Applied Biology 78 . pp. 71

Methods to detect fungicide resistance: from broth dilution to real-time PCR

Fraaije, B. A. and Cools, H. J. 2006. Methods to detect fungicide resistance: from broth dilution to real-time PCR. Fungicide Resistance: Are We Winning the Battle but Losing the War? Aspects of Applied Biology 78 . pp. 11-15

DMI resistance: an overview

Fraaije, B. A. 2006. DMI resistance: an overview. Abstracts 11th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Kobe, 6-11 August 2006 . pp. 60

Fungicide resistance management strategies, using barley mildew as a model

Burnett, F. J., Clark, W. S., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. Fungicide resistance management strategies, using barley mildew as a model. Fungicide Resistance: Are We Winning the Battle but Losing the War? Aspects of Applied Biology 78 . pp. 83-89

Integration of molecular diagnostics and air sampling to study plant pathogens

West, J. S., Fraaije, B. A., Motteram, J., Rogers, S. L., Lacey, M. E. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. Integration of molecular diagnostics and air sampling to study plant pathogens. Abstracts 8th International Congress on Aerobiology, Neuchatel, 21-25 August 2006 . pp. 260

Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays

Cools, H. J., Antoniw, J. F. and Fraaije, B. A. 2006. Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays. Abstracts 11th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Kobe, 6-11 August 2006 . pp. 140

Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays

Cools, H. J., Antoniw, J. F., Bean, T. P. and Fraaije, B. A. 2006. Transcriptome profiling of the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to triazole fungicides using cDNA microarrays. Abstracts 3rd COGEME Interest Group Meeting, Manchester, 7-8 November 2006 . pp. 28

Evolution of azole resistance mechanisms in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2006. Evolution of azole resistance mechanisms in UK populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Fungicide Resistance: Are We Winning the Battle but Losing the War? Aspects of Applied Biology 78 . pp. 21-27

In planta expression analysis in Mycosphaerella graminicola of genes encoding efflux proteins

Bean, T. P., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. In planta expression analysis in Mycosphaerella graminicola of genes encoding efflux proteins. Asbtracts APS CPS MSA Joint Meeting on Plant Pathology at the Biological Crossroads, Quebec, 29 July-2 August 2006 . pp. 11

Application of quantitative real-time PCR to monitor Rynchosporium secalis in barley cultivars

Atkins, S. D., Fountaine, J. M., Fitt, B. D. L. and Fraaije, B. A. 2006. Application of quantitative real-time PCR to monitor Rynchosporium secalis in barley cultivars. Abstracts International Workshop on Barley Leaf Blights, Edmonton, 23-27 July 2006 .

Impact of changes in the target P450 CYP51 enzyme associated with altered triazole-sensitivity in fungal pathogens of cereal crops

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Kim, S. H. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. Impact of changes in the target P450 CYP51 enzyme associated with altered triazole-sensitivity in fungal pathogens of cereal crops. Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (6), pp. 1219-1222.

Exploring appressorial formation in the cereal biotroph powdery mildew

Gilbert, S. R., Fraaije, B. A., Bailey, A., Cools, H. J. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. Exploring appressorial formation in the cereal biotroph powdery mildew. Abstracts 8th European Conference on Fungal Genetics, Vienna, 8-11 April 2006 . pp. 165

Development and field testing of fungicide anti-resistance strategies, with particular reference to strobilurin QoI group of fungicides. (HGCA Project Report No. 392)

Fraaije, B. A., Burnett, F. J., Clark, W. S. and Lucas, J. A. 2006. Development and field testing of fungicide anti-resistance strategies, with particular reference to strobilurin QoI group of fungicides. (HGCA Project Report No. 392). Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) London.

Testing an experimental fungicide for in vitro activity against Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici ) (Confidential report for Cropsolution Inc)

Lucas, J. A., Bean, T., Cools, H. J. and Fraaije, B. A. 2005. Testing an experimental fungicide for in vitro activity against Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici ) (Confidential report for Cropsolution Inc).

Exploring appressorial formation in the biotrophic cereal fungus powdery mildew

Gilbert, S., Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Bailey, A. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Exploring appressorial formation in the biotrophic cereal fungus powdery mildew. Abstracts 23rd Fungal Genetics Conference, Asilomar, 15-20 March 2005 . pp. 177

The role of ascospores in further spread of QoI-resistant cytochrome b alleles (G143A) in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Fraaije, B. A., Cools, H. J., Fountaine, J., Lovell, D. J., Motteram, J., West, J. S. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. The role of ascospores in further spread of QoI-resistant cytochrome b alleles (G143A) in field populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Phytopathology. 95 (8), pp. 933-941.

QoI resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola : role of inoculum, effect of different anti-resistance strategies and current status in the UK

Fraaije, B. A., Burnett, F., Clark, W., Motteram, J. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. QoI resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola : role of inoculum, effect of different anti-resistance strategies and current status in the UK. Abstracts American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, Austin, 30 July-3 August 2005 .

Resistance development to QoI inhibitors in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola in the UK

Fraaije, B. A., Burnett, F. J., Clark, W. S., Motteram, J. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Resistance development to QoI inhibitors in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola in the UK. Dehne, H-W., Lyr, H., Russell, P. E., Kuck, K. H. and Gisi, U. (ed.) Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds IV: Proceedings of the 14th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2004 . British Crop Protection Council (BCPC). pp. 63-71

Molecular examination of Septoria tritici isolates with reduced sensitivities to triazoles

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Molecular examination of Septoria tritici isolates with reduced sensitivities to triazoles. Dehne, H-W., Lyr, H., Russell, P. E., Kuck, K. H. and Gisi, U. (ed.) Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds IV: Proceedings of the 14th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, 25-29 April 2004 . British Crop Protection Council (BCPC). pp. 103-114

Molecular mechanisms correlated with changes in triazole sensitivity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Molecular mechanisms correlated with changes in triazole sensitivity in isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Proceedings BCPC International Congress - Crop Science and Technology, Glasgow, 31 October-2 November 2005 . pp. 267-274

Using cDNA microarrays to profile the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola to triazole fungicides

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A., Keon, J. P. R., Antoniw, J. F. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Using cDNA microarrays to profile the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola to triazole fungicides. Abstracts COGEME Interest Group Meeting, Manchester, 8-9 November 2005 .

Integration of spore trapping with molecular techniques to enhance epidemiological studies

West, J. S., McCartney, H. A., Fountaine, J., Fraaije, B. A., Lee, I. K. and Lucas, J. A. 2005. Integration of spore trapping with molecular techniques to enhance epidemiological studies. Abstracts 9th International Workshop on Plant Disease Epidemiology, Rennes, 10-15 April 2005 . pp. 65

Wheat archive links long-term fungal pathogen population dynamics to air pollution

Bearchell, S. J., Fraaije, B. A., Shaw, M. W. and Fitt, B. D. L. 2005. Wheat archive links long-term fungal pathogen population dynamics to air pollution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (15), pp. 5438-5442.

Strobilurin resistance in Septoria tritici in the UK. (HGCA topic sheet No. 69)

Clark, W. and Fraaije, B. A. 2005. Strobilurin resistance in Septoria tritici in the UK. (HGCA topic sheet No. 69). Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) London.

Molecular mechanisms conferring reduced sensitivities to triazoles in UK isolates of Septoria tritici

Cools, H. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2004. Molecular mechanisms conferring reduced sensitivities to triazoles in UK isolates of Septoria tritici.

Evolution of QoI resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminocola

Fraaije, B. A. and Lucas, J. A. 2004. Evolution of QoI resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminocola.

Plant pathogen diagnostics: immunological and nucleic acid-based approaches

Ward, E., Foster, S. J., Fraaije, B. A. and McCartney, H. A. 2004. Plant pathogen diagnostics: immunological and nucleic acid-based approaches. Annals of Applied Biology. 145 (1), pp. 1-16.

Peduncle rot of dwarf wheat caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis

Lovell, D. J., Parker, S. R., Baldwin, S. and Fraaije, B. A. 2003. Peduncle rot of dwarf wheat caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis.

QoI resistance development in populations of cereal pathogens in the UK

Fraaije, B. A., Lucas, J. A., Clark, W. S. and Burnett, F. J. 2003. QoI resistance development in populations of cereal pathogens in the UK. Proceedings BCPC International Congress - Crop Science and Technology, Glasgow, 10-12 November 2003 . pp. 689-694

Molecular diagnostics for fungal plant pathogens

McCartney, H. A., Foster, S. J., Fraaije, B. A. and Ward, E. 2003. Molecular diagnostics for fungal plant pathogens. Pest Management Science. 59 (2), pp. 129-142.

Resistance in wheat powdery mildew to strobilurin fungicides: effects of dose rate, frequency and mixtures (Final report to Defra on project PT0226)

Fraaije, B. A. 2002. Resistance in wheat powdery mildew to strobilurin fungicides: effects of dose rate, frequency and mixtures (Final report to Defra on project PT0226).

Septoria epidemics on wheat: combined use of visual assessment and PCR-based diagnostics to identify mechanisms of disease escape

Fraaije, B. A., Lovell, D. J. and Baldwin, S. 2002. Septoria epidemics on wheat: combined use of visual assessment and PCR-based diagnostics to identify mechanisms of disease escape.

Following the dynamics of strobilurin resistance in Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici using quantitative allele-specific real-time PCR measurements with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green 1

Fraaije, B. A., Butters, J. A., Coelho, J. M., Jones, D. R. and Hollomon, D. W. 2002. Following the dynamics of strobilurin resistance in Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici using quantitative allele-specific real-time PCR measurements with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green 1. Plant Pathology. 51 (1), pp. 45-54.

Quantitative PCR monitoring of the effect of azoxystrobin treatments on Mycosphaerella graminicola epidemics in the field

Rohel, E. A., Laurent, P., Fraaije, B. A., Cavelier, N. and Hollomon, D. W. 2002. Quantitative PCR monitoring of the effect of azoxystrobin treatments on Mycosphaerella graminicola epidemics in the field. Pest Management Science. 58 (3), pp. 248-254.

Occurrence and molecular characterization of strobilurin resistance in cucumber powdery mildew and downy mildew

Ishii, H., Fraaije, B. A., Sugiyama, T., Noguchi, K., Nishimura, K., Takeda, T., Amano, T. and Hollomon, D. W. 2001. Occurrence and molecular characterization of strobilurin resistance in cucumber powdery mildew and downy mildew. Phytopathology. 91, pp. 1166-1171.

PCR-based assays to assess wheat varietal resistance to blotch (Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nododrum ) and rust (Puccinia striiformis and Puccinia recondita ) diseases

Fraaije, B. A., Lovell, D. J., Coelho, J. M., Baldwin, S. and Hollomon, D. W. 2001. PCR-based assays to assess wheat varietal resistance to blotch (Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nododrum ) and rust (Puccinia striiformis and Puccinia recondita ) diseases. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 107, pp. 905-917.

Exploring infection of wheat and carbohydrate metabolism in Mycosphaerella graminocola transformants with differentially regulated green fluorescent protein expression

Rohel, E. A., Payne, A. C., Fraaije, B. A. and Hollomon, D. W. 2001. Exploring infection of wheat and carbohydrate metabolism in Mycosphaerella graminocola transformants with differentially regulated green fluorescent protein expression. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 14 (2), pp. 156-163.

Novel DNA diagnostic technology in plant disease control using Septoria tritici as a model. (HGCA Project Report No. 245)

Fraaije, B. A. and Hollomon, D. W. 2001. Novel DNA diagnostic technology in plant disease control using Septoria tritici as a model. (HGCA Project Report No. 245). Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) London.

In planta genotyping of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici isolates for strobilurin-resistance using a fluorometric allele-specific PCR assay

Fraaije, B. A., Butters, J. A. and Hollomon, D. W. 2000. In planta genotyping of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici isolates for strobilurin-resistance using a fluorometric allele-specific PCR assay. Proceedings AFPP 6th International Conference on Plant Diseases, Tours, 6-8 December 2000 . pp. 779-786

In planta genotyping of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici isolates for strobilurin-resistance using a fluorometric allele-specific PCR assay

Fraaije, B. A., Butters, J. A. and Hollomon, D. W. 2000. In planta genotyping of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici isolates for strobilurin-resistance using a fluorometric allele-specific PCR assay. Proceedings Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases, 2000 . pp. 401-406

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