Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Smith, F., Pan, X., Bellido, V., Toole, G. A., Gates, F. K., Wickham, M. S. J., Shewry, P. R., Bakalis, S., Padfield, P. and Mills, E. N. C. 2015. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 59 (10), pp. 2034-2043.

AuthorsSmith, F., Pan, X., Bellido, V., Toole, G. A., Gates, F. K., Wickham, M. S. J., Shewry, P. R., Bakalis, S., Padfield, P. and Mills, E. N. C.
Abstract

Scope: Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Methods and results: Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. Conclusion: The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices.

KeywordsFood Science & Technology
Year of Publication2015
JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
Journal citation59 (10), pp. 2034-2043
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500262
PubMed ID26202208
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
Funder project or codeDesigning Seeds for Nutrition and Health (DS)
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
European Commission - EC
ISSN16134125
PublisherWiley
Grant IDBB/1006109/1
266331

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