A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. The evolution of dominance in certain polymorphic species.The American Naturalist.64 (694), pp. 385-406. https://doi.org/10.1086/280325

Authors | Fisher, R. A. |
---|---|

Abstract | Polymorphism in wild populations must usually imply a balance of selective agencies, of which the simplest type is a selective advantage of the heterozygote over both homozygotes. Such a condition should not be confused with the maintenance of a rare mutant type against counter-selection by means of repeated mutations. While such mutations should on the theory of the selective modification of dominance tend to become recessive, heterozygotes in polymorphic species will tend to resemble in external appearance whichever homozygote it is most advantageous to resemble. The selective balance must then be maintained by some constitutional disadvantage of the homozygous dominant. The modification of dominance should in such cases be especially rapid; partly by reason of the far greater frequencies of the heterozygotes exposed to selection, and partly, if any tract of chromatin is permanently associated with the dominant gene, from the fact that the evolutionary modification of such a tract will be reserved for the improvement of the heterozygote, and in less degree of the corresponding homozygote. Nabours' experiments with the grouse locust Apotettix do, in fact, show such a deficiency of homozygous doral nants as is required by this theory. The average amount of the deficiency is about 7 per cent. In six individual cases the deficiency is statistically significant, and six more show a non-significant deficiency, against two showing a non-significant excess. It is not certain from the existing data whether the homozygous recessive is equivalent in viability to the heterozygotes, or suffers also from a slight defect in viability. Deliberate experiments on the viability of the different genotypes together with counts of the frequencies in nature would enable the inference that the dominants really exhibit the more advantageous patterns to be put: to a quantitative test. The incidence of dominance and linkage in the fish Lebistes reticulatus, strongly suggests that the colored genes found by Winge are advantageous in the male but disadvantageous in the female. The association of the three peculiarities of polymorphism, close linkage and the universal recessive type of dominance is found in mollusks, arthropods and vertebrates. It is tentatively suggested that, at least in the grouse locusts and the snails, the primary cause of the two other phenomena may be found in the closeness of linkage within or between chromosomes. This condition presents an obstacle to normal evolutionary development by gene substitution, and so makes it possible for abnormalities such as duplications to possess occasional advantages, so setting up the stability of the gene-ratio necessary for polymorphism; if the advantage lies in the external appearance, the polymorphism will be manifest, and the variant form will tend to become dominant. |

Year of Publication | 1930 |

Journal | The American Naturalist |

Journal citation | 64 (694), pp. 385-406 |

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) | https://doi.org/10.1086/280325 |

Open access | Published as non-open access |

Publisher | American Society of Naturalists |

The University of Chicago Press | |

ISSN | 0003-0147 |

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Healy, M. J. R. 1956. New tables of Behrens' test of significance. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Statistical Methodology).* 18 (2), pp. 212-216.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1955. Statistical methods and scientific induction. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Statistical Methodology).*

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A., Corbet, A. S. and Williams, C. B. 1943. The Relation Between the Number of Species and the Number of Individuals in a Random Sample of an Animal Population. *Journal of Animal Ecology.* 12 (1), pp. 42-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/1411

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A., Corbet, A. S. and Williams, C. B. 1943. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. *Journal of Animal Ecology.* 12 (1), pp. 42-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/1411

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1938. The statistical utilization of multiple measurements. *Annals of Eugenics.* 8 (4), pp. 376-386. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1938.tb02189.x

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Koshal, R. S. and Fisher, R. A. 1934. The Effects of Rainfall and Temperature on Percolation through drain gauges. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 24 (1), pp. 105-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600012478

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Yates, F. 1934. The 6×6 latin squares. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 30 (4), pp. 492-507. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100012731

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1933. Statistical tables. *Nature.*

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1933. Selection in the production of the ever-sporting stocks. *Annals of Botany.* 47 (188), pp. 727-733.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1933. On the evidence against the chemical induction of melanism in Lepidoptera. *Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences.* 112 (778), pp. 407-416. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1933.0018

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1933. The concepts of inverse probability and fiducial probability referring to unknown parameters. *Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences.* 139 (838), pp. 343-348.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1933. Number of Mendelian factors in quantitative inheritance. *Nature.* 131, p. 400. https://doi.org/10.1038/131400a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1932. Inheritance of Acquired Characters. *Nature.* 130, p. 579. https://doi.org/10.1038/130579a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Dunn, L. C. and Fisher, R. A. 1932. A new series of allelomorphs in mice. *Nature.* 139 (3247), p. 130.

E - Books edited/written by staff member, alone/with others

Russell, E. J., Fisher, R. A., Wishart, J., Stapledon, R. G., Armstrong, S. F., Lewis, A. H., Manson, A.D., Procter, J., Hoblyn, T. N., Garner, H. V., Watson, D. J. and Carroll, T. H. J. Russell, E. W. (ed.) 1932. * Rothamsted Conference RC No 13 : The Technique of Field Experiments : Rothamsted conferences on present day problems on crop production : being the report of a conference held at Rothamsted on XX 1932.* Harpenden Rothamsted Research.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1932. The evolutionary modification of genetic phenomena. *Proceedings 6th International Congress of Genetics.* 1, pp. 165-172.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1932. The bearing of genetics on theories of evolution. *Science Progress in the Twentieth Century (1919-1933).* 27 (106), pp. 273-287.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Wishart, J. 1932. The derivation of the pattern formulae of two-way partitions from those of simpler patterns. *Proceedings Of The London Mathematical Society.* s2-33 (1), pp. 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-33.1.195

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1932. Inverse probability and the use of likelihood. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 28 (3), pp. 257-261. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100010094

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A., Immer, F. R. and Tedin, O. 1932. The genetical interpretation of statistics of the third degree in the study of quantitative inheritance. *Genetics.* 17 (2), pp. 107-124.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Bartlett, S. 1931. Pasteurised and Raw Milk. *Nature.* 127, pp. 591-592. https://doi.org/10.1038/127591c0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1931. XVII—The distribution of gene ratios for rare mutations. *Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.* 50, pp. 204-219. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0370164600044886

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1931. The evolution of dominance. *Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 6 (4), pp. 345-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1931.tb01030.x

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. Moments and product moments of sampling distributions. *Proceedings Of The London Mathematical Society.* s2-30 (1), pp. 199-238. https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-30.1.199

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. The moments of the distribution for normal samples of measures of departure from normality. *Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences.* 130 (812), pp. 16-28.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. Biometry and evolution. *Nature.* 126, p. 246. https://doi.org/10.1038/126246a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. Mortality amongst plants and its bearing on natural selection. *Nature.* 125, p. 972. https://doi.org/10.1038/125972a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1930. Inverse probability. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 26 (4), pp. 528-535. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100016297681

G - Articles in popular magazines and other technical publications

Fisher, R. A. and Wishart, J. 1930. The arrangement of field experiments and the statistical reduction of the results. https://doi.org/10.23637/rothamsted.8v20y

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. The evolution of dominance reply to Professor Sewall Wright. *The American Naturalist.* 63 (689), pp. 553-556. https://doi.org/10.1086/280289

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. Population and depopulation. *Nature.* 123, pp. 357-358. https://doi.org/10.1038/123357a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. The over-production of food. *Realist.* 1, pp. 45-60.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Ford, E. B. 1929. The variability of species in the Lepidoptera, with reference to abundance and sex. *Ecological Entomology.* 76 (2), pp. 367-384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1929.tb01411.x

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. Tests of significance in harmonic analysis. *Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.* 125 (796), pp. 54-59. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1929.0151

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Eden, T. and Fisher, R. A. 1929. Studies in crop variation: VI. Experiments on the response of the potato to potash and nitrogen. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 19 (2), pp. 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600011254

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. The sieve of Eratosthenes. *The Mathematical Gazette.* 14 (204), pp. 564-566. https://doi.org/10.2307/3607073

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1929. A preliminary note on the effect of sodium silicate in increasing the yield of barley. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 19, pp. 132-139.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Hoblyn, T. N. 1928. Maximum-and Minimum-Correlation Tables in Comparative Climatology. *Geografiska Annaler.* 10 (3), pp. 267-281. https://doi.org/10.1080/20014422.1928.11880484

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1928. The possible modification of the response of the wild type to recurrent mutations. *The American Naturalist.* 62 (679), pp. 115-126. https://doi.org/10.1086/280193

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1928. Two further notes on the origin of dominance. *The American Naturalist.* 62 (683), pp. 571-574. https://doi.org/10.1086/280234

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1928. The general sampling distribution of the multiple correlation coefficient. *Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.* 121 (788), pp. 654-673. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1928.0224

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1928. Triplet children in Great Britain and Ireland. *Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences.* 102 (717), pp. 286-311. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1928.0005

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Tippett, L. H. C. 1928. Limiting forms of the frequency distribution of the largest or smallest member of a sample. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 24 (2), pp. 180-190. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100015681

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Balmukand, B. 1928. The estimation of linkage from the offspring of selfed heterozygotes. *Journal of Genetics.* 20 (1), pp. 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02983317

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1928. Further note on the capillary forces in an ideal soil. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 18 (3), pp. 406-410. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600019432

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Thornton, H. G. and Fisher, R. A. 1927. On the Existence of Daily Changes in the Bacterial Numbers in American Soil. *Soil Science.* 23 (4), pp. 253-259.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Wishart, J. 1927. On the distribution of the error of an interpolated value, and on the construction of tables. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 23 (8), pp. 912-921. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100013785

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1927. On some objections to mimicry theory; statistical and genetic. *Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London.* 75 (2), pp. 269-278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1927.tb00074.x

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Eden, T. and Fisher, R. A. 1927. Studies in crop variation: IV. The experimental determination of the value of top dressings with cereals. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 17 (4), pp. 548-562. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600018827

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1926. The Resemblance between Twins, a Statistical Examination of Lauterbach's Measurements Correction. 11 (1), p. 83.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Ford, E. B. 1926. Variability of Species. *Nature.* 118, p. 515. https://doi.org/10.1038/118515a0

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1926. On the capillary forces in an ideal soil; correction of formulae given by W. B. Haines. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 16 (3), pp. 492-505. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600007838

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1926. Bayes' theorem and the fourfold table. *Eugenics Review.* 18 (1), pp. 32-33.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1926. The arrangement of field experiments. *Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture.* 33, pp. 503-515. https://doi.org/10.23637/rothamsted.8v61q

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Oden, S. 1925. XI.—The Theory of the Mechanical Analysis of Sediments by means of the Automatic Balance. *Proceedings - Royal Society of Edinburgh.* 44, pp. 98-115. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0370164600020836

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1925. Statistical tests of agreement between observation and hypothesis. *Economica.* 8, pp. 139-147. https://doi.org/10.2307/2548482

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1925. Applications of Student's distribution New tables for testing the significance of observations Expansion of student's integral in powers of n-1. *Metron.* 5, pp. 90-104.

E - Books edited/written by staff member, alone/with others

Fisher, R. A. 1925. *Statistical methods for research workers.* Oliver and Boyd.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1925. Theory of statistical estimation. *Mathematical Proceedings Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 22 (5), pp. 700-725. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100009580

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1925. The resemblance between twins, a statistical examination of Lauterbach's measurements. *Genetics.* 10 (6), pp. 569-579.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Ansell, P. R. and Fisher, R. A. 1925. Note on the numerical evaluation of a Bessel function derivative. *Proceedings Of The London Mathematical Society.* 24, pp. liv-lvi.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1925. The influence of rainfall on the yield of wheat at Rothamsted. *Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences.* 213 (402-410), pp. 89-142. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1925.0003

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1924. On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics. *Proceedings International Mathematical Congress, Toronto.* 2, pp. 805-813.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1924. The distribution of the partial correlation coefficient. *Metron.* 3, pp. 329-332.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1924. The conditions under which X squared measures the discrepancy between observation and hypothesis. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.* 87 (3), pp. 442-450.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1923. Note on Dr. Burnside's recent paper on errors of observation. *Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.* 21, pp. 655-658.

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Mackenzie, W. A. 1923. Studies in crop variation. II. The manurial response of different potato varieties. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 13 (3), pp. 311-320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600003592

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1922. On the Interpretation of X squared from Contingency Tables, and the Calculation of P. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.* 85 (1), pp. 87-94. https://doi.org/10.2307/2340521

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. and Mackenzie, W. A. 1922. The correlation of weekly rainfall. *Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society.* 48 (203), pp. 234-245. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49704820305

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1922. The goodness of fit of regression formulae, and the distribution of regression coefficients. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.* 85 (4), pp. 597-612. https://doi.org/10.2307/2341124

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A., Thornton, H. G. and Mackenzie, W. A. 1922. The accuracy of the plating method of estimating the density of bacterial populations: with particular reference to the use of Thornton's agar medium with soil samples. *Annals of Applied Biology - AAB.* 9 (3‐4), pp. 325-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1922.tb05962.x

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1922. On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics. *Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences.* 222 (594-604), pp. 309-368. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1922.0009

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1921. Studies in crop variation. 1. An examination of the yield of dressed grain from Broadbalk. *The Journal of Agricultural Science.* 11 (2), pp. 107-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600003750

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Fisher, R. A. 1915. Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population. *Biometrika.* 10 (4), pp. 507-521. https://doi.org/10.2307/2331838

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