A - Papers appearing in refereed journals
Free, J. B. and Nuttall, P. M. 1968. Effect of the time of day at which honeybee colonies are first allowed flight in a new location on their choice of flower species. Nature. 218 (982), p. 982.
|Authors||Free, J. B. and Nuttall, P. M.|
A FLOWER tends to present most of its pollen at a time of day characteristic of its species. Thus dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) presents its pollen between 0900 and 1500 h, but 63 per cent between 1000 and 1100 h, whereas apple (Pyrus malus) presents its pollen between 0800 and 1700 h, but 67 per cent between 1200 and 1600 h1. When dandelion and apple are flowering in the same area, individual foraging bees tend to be constant to one or other species and when dandelion flowers close for the day very few bees that visited them earlier change to visiting the apple2. It seemed probable therefore that if colonies of bees were prevented from foraging until the afternoon of the first day they were present in an apple orchard, more bees might become conditioned to apple and fewer to dandelion than if they are allowed to forage early in the morning.
|Year of Publication||1968|
|Journal citation||218 (982), p. 982|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||doi:10.1038/218982a0|
|Publisher||Nature Publishing Group|
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