Daily and seasonal changes in the surface temperature of fallow soil at Rothamsted

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Penman, H. L. and Keen, B. A. 1943. Daily and seasonal changes in the surface temperature of fallow soil at Rothamsted. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 69 (298), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49706929802

AuthorsPenman, H. L. and Keen, B. A.

Abstract A method of obtaining continuous records are discussed. The relations between surface and sub-surface temperatures are briefly considered, and then, in more detail, the inter-dependence of soil surface and air temperatures is examined. At all seasons the soil temperature is in phase with solar radiation whereas the maximum air temperature is delayed; for air maxima below 52° F. the daily range of soil surface temperature is approximately the same as that of the air temperature. Above this threshold the soil surface maximum increases twice as rapidly as the air maximum. Using this value of the air maximum, 5244F., to divide the year into two seasons, it is found that the winter and summer periods so separated are the same as those previously obtained form the criterion:—Seasonal evaporation is equal to or less than that from an open water surface. Interest is primarily centred on the summer season, in which the soil surface temperature exceeds that of the air for a considerable part of the day, and for a rainless summer period of t days an anticipated relation of the form ΣE=at1/n, where n=3, a is a constant and ΣE=the total evaporation, is confirmed from the Rothamsted records. The effect of the diurnal oscillation of surface temperature on germinating seed is briefly discussed.

Year of Publication1943
JournalQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Journal citation69 (298), pp. 1-13
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49706929802
Open accessPublished as non-open access
PublisherRoyal Meteorological Society

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