Ian Shield

NameIan Shield
Job titleSenior Scientific Manager - Agronomy
Email addressian.shield@rothamsted.ac.uk
DepartmentSustainable Agriculture Sciences Harpenden
Research clusterSAS-H: Agronomy and Nutrient Flows
Preferred citationShield, I. F.
OfficeHarpenden

Research outputs

Optimizing the bioenergy water footprint selecting SRC willow canopy phenotypes: regional scenario simulations

Richard, B., Richter, G. M., Cerasuolo, M. and Shield, I. F. 2019. Optimizing the bioenergy water footprint selecting SRC willow canopy phenotypes: regional scenario simulations. Annals of Botany.

The potential for production of high quality bio-coal from early harvested Miscanthus by hydrothermal carbonisation

Smith, A. M., Whittaker, C., Shield, I. F. and Ross, A. B. 2018. The potential for production of high quality bio-coal from early harvested Miscanthus by hydrothermal carbonisation. Fuel. 220 (15 May), pp. 546-557.

Rothamsted Long-term experiments : guide to the classical and other long-term experiments, datasets and sample archive

Macdonald, A. J., Poulton, P. R., Clark, I. M., Scott, T., Glendining, M. J., Perryman, S. A. M., Storkey, J., Bell, J. R., Shield, I. F., Mcmillan, V. E. and Hawkins, J. M. B. Macdonald, A. J. (ed.) 2018. Rothamsted Long-term experiments : guide to the classical and other long-term experiments, datasets and sample archive. Rothamsted Research, Harpenden.

Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form

Whittaker, C., Yates, N. E., Powers, S. J., Misselbrook, T. H. and Shield, I. F. 2018. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form. Biomass & Bioenergy. 112, pp. 29-36.

Breeding progress and preparedness for mass-scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow, and poplar

Clifton-Brown, J., Harfouche, A., Casler, M. D., Jones, H. D., Macalpine, W. J., Murphy-Bokern, D., Smart, L. B., Adler, A., Ashman, C., Awty-Carroll, D., Bastien, C., Bopper, S., Botnari, V., Brancourt-Hulmel, M., Chen, Z., Clark, L. V., Cosentino, S., Dalton, S., Davey, C., Dolstra, O., Donnison, I., Flavell, R., Greef, J., Hanley, S. J., Hastings, A., Hertzberg, M., Hsu, T., Huang, L., Iurato, A., Jensen, E., Jin, X., Jørgensen, U., Kiesel, A., Kim, D., Liu, J., McCalmont, J. P., McMahon, B. G., Mos, M., Robson, P., Sacks, E. J., Sandu, A., Scalici, G., Schwarz, K., Scordia, D., Shafiei, R., Shield, I. F., Slavov, G., Stanton, B. J., Swaminathan, K., Taylor, G., Torres, A. F., Trindade, L. M., Tschaplinski, T., Tuskan, J., Yamada, T., Yu, C. Y., Zalesny, R., Zong, J. and Lewandowski, I. 2018. Breeding progress and preparedness for mass-scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow, and poplar. GCB Bioenergy.

Species and Genotype Effects of Bioenergy Crops on Root Production, Carbon and Nitrogen in Temperate Agricultural Soil

Gregory, A. S., Dungait, J. A. J., Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J., Cunniff, J., Durenkamp, M., White, R. P., Joynes, A. and Richter, G. M. 2018. Species and Genotype Effects of Bioenergy Crops on Root Production, Carbon and Nitrogen in Temperate Agricultural Soil. BioEnergy Research. 11, pp. 382-397.

Cultivation and Use of Basket Willows - a guide to growing basket willows

Macalpine, W. J., Burns, H., Hammerin, A., Shield, I. F., Butcher, M., Davies, O. and Bertram, G. 2018. Cultivation and Use of Basket Willows - a guide to growing basket willows. The Basketmakers Association.

Factors affecting wood, energy grass and straw pellet durability – A review

Whittaker, C. and Shield, I. F. 2017. Factors affecting wood, energy grass and straw pellet durability – A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 71 (May), pp. 1-11.

Dry matter losses and methane emissions during wood chip storage: the impact on full life cycle greenhouse gas savings of short rotation coppice willow for heat

Whittaker, C., Macalpine, W. J., Yates, N. E. and Shield, I. F. 2016. Dry matter losses and methane emissions during wood chip storage: the impact on full life cycle greenhouse gas savings of short rotation coppice willow for heat. Bioenergy Research. 9, pp. 820-835.

How well does Miscanthus ensile for use in an anaerobic digestion plant?

Whittaker, C., Hunt, J., Misselbrook, T. H. and Shield, I. F. 2016. How well does Miscanthus ensile for use in an anaerobic digestion plant? Biomass & Bioenergy. 88, pp. 24-34.

Development of a sink-source interaction model for the growth of short-rotation coppice willow and in silico exploration of genotype x environment effects

Cerasuolo, M., Richter, G. M., Richard, B., Cunniff, J., Girbau, S., Shield, I. F., Purdy, S. and Karp, A. 2016. Development of a sink-source interaction model for the growth of short-rotation coppice willow and in silico exploration of genotype x environment effects. Journal of Experimental Botany. 67 (3), pp. 961-977.

Dry matter losses and greenhouse gas emissions from outside storage of short rotation coppice willow chip

Whittaker, C., Yates, N. E., Powers, S. J., Misselbrook, T. H. and Shield, I. F. 2016. Dry matter losses and greenhouse gas emissions from outside storage of short rotation coppice willow chip. Bioenergy Research. 9, pp. 288-302.

Growing innovations for the bioeconomy

Karp, A., Beale, M. H., Beaudoin, F., Eastmond, P. J., Neal, A. L., Shield, I. F., Townsend, B. J. and Dobermann, A. 2015. Growing innovations for the bioeconomy. Nature Plants. 1, p. 15193.

Breeding willow for short rotation coppice energy cropping

Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J., Hanley, S. J. and Karp, A. 2015. Breeding willow for short rotation coppice energy cropping. in: Cruz, V. M. V. and Dierig, D. A. (ed.) Industrial crops. Handbook of Plant Breeding 9 Springer, New York. pp. 67-80

X-ray micro-computed tomography in willow reveals tissue patterning of reaction wood and delay in programmed cell death

Brereton, N. J. B., Ahmed, F., Sykes, D., Ray, M. J., Shield, I. F., Karp, A. and Murphy, R. J. 2015. X-ray micro-computed tomography in willow reveals tissue patterning of reaction wood and delay in programmed cell death. BMC Plant Biology. 15, p. 83.

Efficient method for rapid multiplication of clean and healthy willow clones via in vitro propagation with broad genotype applicability

Palomo-Rios, E., Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F., Amey, J. S., Karaoglu, C., West, J., Hanley, S. J., Krygier, R., Karp, A. and Jones, H. D. 2015. Efficient method for rapid multiplication of clean and healthy willow clones via in vitro propagation with broad genotype applicability. Canadian Journal Of Forest Research. 45 (11), pp. 1662-1667.

High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

Cunniff, J., Purdy, S. J., Barraclough, T. J. P., Castle, M., Maddison, A. L., Jones, L. E., Shield, I. F., Gregory, A. S. and Karp, A. 2015. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation. Biomass & Bioenergy. 80 (September), pp. 114-127.

Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and climate regulation of senescence in the perennial grass, Miscanthus

Purdy, S. J., Cunnif, J., Maddison, A. L., Jones, L. E., Barraclough, T. J. P., Castle, M., Davey, C. L., Jones, C. M., Shield, I. F., Gallgher, J., Donnison, I. and Clifton-Brown, J. 2015. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and climate regulation of senescence in the perennial grass, Miscanthus. Bioenergy Research. 8 (1), pp. 28-41.

The yield and quality response of the energy grass Miscanthus x giganteus to fertiliser applications of nitrogen, potassium and sulphur

Shield, I. F., Barraclough, T. J. P., Riche, A. B. and Yates, N. E. 2014. The yield and quality response of the energy grass Miscanthus x giganteus to fertiliser applications of nitrogen, potassium and sulphur. Biomass & Bioenergy. 68, pp. 185-194.

Genetic diversity, population structure and phenotypic variation in European Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae)

Berlin, S., Trybush, S. O., Fogelqvist, J., Gyllenstrand, N., Hallingback, H. R., Ahman, I., Nordh, N-E., Shield, I. F., Powers, S. J., Weih, M., Lagercrantz, U., Ronnberg-Wastljung, A-C., Karp, A. and Hanley, S. J. 2014. Genetic diversity, population structure and phenotypic variation in European Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae). Tree Genetics & Genomes. 10 (6), pp. 1595-1610.

Photosynthesis and growth in diverse willow genotypes

Andralojc, P. J., Bencze, S., Madgwick, P. J., Philippe, H., Powers, S. J., Shield, I. F., Karp, A. and Parry, M. A. J. 2014. Photosynthesis and growth in diverse willow genotypes. Food and Energy Security. 3, pp. 69-85.

Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

Murozuka, E., Laursen, K. H., Lindedam, J., Shield, I. F., Bruun, S., Magid, J., Moller, I. S. and Schjoerring, J. K. 2014. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw. Biomass & Bioenergy. 64, pp. 291-298.

Rothamsted Research willow (Salix spp.) breeding programme: multi-site yield trial results 2014

Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F., Walsh, L. R. E., Johnston, C., Mccracken, A. R., Gilliland, J., Wilson, H., Finnan, J., Power, R., Hartmann, H., Weitz, M., White, Robin P. and Karp, A. 2014. Rothamsted Research willow (Salix spp.) breeding programme: multi-site yield trial results 2014. Proceedings 22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy, Hamburg, 23-26 June 2014 . pp. 116-121

Miscanthus combustion properties and variations with Miscanthus agronomy

Baxter, X. C., Darvell, L. I., Jones, J. M., Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E. and Shield, I. F. 2014. Miscanthus combustion properties and variations with Miscanthus agronomy. Fuel. 117 (Part A), pp. 851-869.

Genetics, genomics and crop modelling: integrative approaches to the improvement of biomass willows

Karp, A., Richter, G. M., Shield, I. F. and Hanley, S. J. 2014. Genetics, genomics and crop modelling: integrative approaches to the improvement of biomass willows. in: McCann, M. C. (ed.) Plants and bioenergy. Advances in Plant Biology, Vol 4 Springer, New York. pp. 107-130

Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow

Brereton, N. J. B., Pitre, F. E., Shield, I. F., Hanley, S. J., Ray, M. J., Murphy, R. J. and Karp, A. 2014. Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow. Tree Physiology. 34 (11), pp. 1252-1262.

Modeling long-term yield trends of Miscanthus x giganteus using experimental data from across Europe

Lesur, C., Jeuffroy, M-H., Makowski, D., Riche, A. B., Shield, I. F., Yates, N. E., Fritz, M., Formowitz, B., Grunert, M., Jorgensen, U., Laerke, P. E. and Loyce, C. 2013. Modeling long-term yield trends of Miscanthus x giganteus using experimental data from across Europe. Field Crops Research. 149, pp. 252-260.

The influence of harvest and storage on the properties of and fast pyrolysis products from Miscanthus giganteus

Greenhalf, C. E., Nowakowski, D. J., Yates, N. E., Shield, I. F. and Bridgwater, A. V. 2013. The influence of harvest and storage on the properties of and fast pyrolysis products from Miscanthus giganteus. Biomass & Bioenergy. 56, pp. 247-259.

A pseudo-3D model to optimise the target traits of light interception in short-rotation coppice willow

Cerasuolo, M., Richter, G. M., Cunniff, J., Purdy, S., Shield, I. F. and Karp, A. 2013. A pseudo-3D model to optimise the target traits of light interception in short-rotation coppice willow. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 173, pp. 127-138.

The yield response of the energy crops switchgrass and reed canary grass to fertiliser applications when grown on a low productivity sandy soil

Shield, I. F., Barraclough, T. J. P., Riche, A. B. and Yates, N. E. 2012. The yield response of the energy crops switchgrass and reed canary grass to fertiliser applications when grown on a low productivity sandy soil. Biomass & Bioenergy. 42, pp. 86-96.

Reaction wood - a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow

Brereton, N. J. B., Ray, M. J., Shield, I. F., Martin, P., Karp, A. and Murphy, R. J. 2012. Reaction wood - a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 2, p. 83.

Variation in cell wall composition and accessibility in relation to biofuel potential of short rotation coppice willows

Ray, M. J., Brereton, N. J. B., Shield, I. F., Karp, A. and Murphy, R. J. 2012. Variation in cell wall composition and accessibility in relation to biofuel potential of short rotation coppice willows. BioEnergy Research. 5, pp. 685-698.

Thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses

Greenhalf, C. E., Nowakowski, D. J., Bridgwater, A. V., Titiloye, J., Yates, N. E., Riche, A. B. and Shield, I. F. 2012. Thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses. Industrial Crops and Products. 36, pp. 449-459.

Effect of nitrogen fertiliser application on cell wall composition in switchgrass and reed canary grass

Allison, G. G., Morris, C., Lister, S. J., Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E., Shield, I. F. and Donnison, I. S. 2012. Effect of nitrogen fertiliser application on cell wall composition in switchgrass and reed canary grass. Biomass & Bioenergy. 40, pp. 19-26.

Population genetics of Tuberolachnus salignus, an obligate parthenogenetic aphid

Aradottir, G. I., Hanley, S. J., Collins, C. M., Dawson, K. J., Karp, A., Leather, S. R., Shield, I. F. and Harrington, R. 2012. Population genetics of Tuberolachnus salignus, an obligate parthenogenetic aphid. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 14 (2), pp. 197-205.

Study of Miscanthus x giganteus ash composition - variation with agronomy and assessment method

Baxter, X. C., Darvell, L. I., Jones, J. M., Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E. and Shield, I. F. 2012. Study of Miscanthus x giganteus ash composition - variation with agronomy and assessment method. Fuel. 95, pp. 50-62.

Seed to near market variety: the BEGIN willow breeding pipeline 2003-2010 and beyond

Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F. and Karp, A. 2011. Seed to near market variety: the BEGIN willow breeding pipeline 2003-2010 and beyond. Proceedings Bioten Conference on Biomass, Bioenergy and Biofuels, Birmingham, 21-23 September 2010 . CPL Scientific Publishing, Newbury. pp. 94-104

Rothamsted Research willow (Salix spp.) breeding programme: multi-site yield trial results 2011

Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F., Walsh, L. R. E., Mccracken, A. R., Wilson, H., Gilliland, J., Hughes, A. R., Cunniff, J. and Karp, A. 2011. Rothamsted Research willow (Salix spp.) breeding programme: multi-site yield trial results 2011. Biomass and Energy Crops IV. Aspects of Applied Biology 112 . pp. 263-270

The overwinter changes in the above and below ground biomass of miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)

Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E. and Shield, I. F. 2011. The overwinter changes in the above and below ground biomass of miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Bridgwater, A. V. (ed.) Proceedings Bioten Conference on Biomass, Bioenergy and Biofuels, Birmingham, 21-23 September 2010 . CPL Press, Newbury.

The BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC): perennial bioenergy crops programme; optimising biomass from Miscanthus

Purdy, S., Clifton-Brown, J., Jones, L., Maddison, A., Davey, C., Cunniff, J., Shield, I. F., Barraclough, T. J. P., Castle, M., Donnison, I. and Karp, A. 2011. The BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC): perennial bioenergy crops programme; optimising biomass from Miscanthus. Biomass and bioenergy IV. Aspects of Applied Biology 112 . pp. 11-19

Comparative trials of elite Swedish and UK biomass willow varieties 2001-2010

Lindegaard, K. N., Carter, M. M., Mccracken, A., Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J., Hinton Jones, M., Valentine, J. and Larsson, S. 2011. Comparative trials of elite Swedish and UK biomass willow varieties 2001-2010. Biomass and bioenergy crops IV. Aspects of Applied Biology 112 . pp. 57-66

Condensed tannins in willow (Salix spp.): a first step to evaluate novel feeds for nutritionally improved animal products

Falchero, L., Brown, R. H., Mueller-Harvey, I., Hanley, S. J., Shield, I. F. and Karp, A. 2011. Condensed tannins in willow (Salix spp.): a first step to evaluate novel feeds for nutritionally improved animal products. Hopkins, A., Krautzer, B. and Potsch, E. M. (ed.) Proceedings 16th Symposium of the European Grassland Federation: Grassland Farming and Land Management Systems in Mountainous Regions, Gumpenstein, 29-31 August 2011 . Wallig Ennstaler Druckerei und Verlag, Grobming. pp. 434-436

The structural diversity of condensed tannins in willows (salix spp.): a first screening to improve the nutritional quality of ruminant products

Falchero, L., Brown, R., Hanley, S. J., Karp, A., Shield, I. F. and Mueller-Harvey, I. 2011. The structural diversity of condensed tannins in willows (salix spp.): a first screening to improve the nutritional quality of ruminant products.

BSBEC-BioMASS - selecting traits to optimise biomass yield of SRC willow

Cunniff, J., Shield, I. F., Barraclough, T. J. P., Castle, M., Hanley, S. J., Andralojc, P. J., Richter, G. M., Cerasuolo, M., Purdy, S., Clifton-Brown, J., Maddison, A., Jones, L., Donnison, I. and Karp, A. 2011. BSBEC-BioMASS - selecting traits to optimise biomass yield of SRC willow. Biomass and Energy Crops IV. Aspects of Applied Biology 112 . pp. 83-91

Biomass and energy crops IV (Aspects of Applied Biology 112)

Booth, E., Halford, N. G., Shield, I. F., Taylor, G. and Turley, D. Voigt, T. (ed.) 2011. Biomass and energy crops IV (Aspects of Applied Biology 112). Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick .

Learning how to deal with values, frames and governance in sustainability appraisal

Bond, A. J., Dockerty, T., Lovett, A., Riche, A. B., Haughton, A. J., Bohan, D. A., Sage, R. B., Shield, I. F., Finch, J. W., Turner, M. M. and Karp, A. 2011. Learning how to deal with values, frames and governance in sustainability appraisal. Regional Studies. 45, pp. 1157-1170.

Effects of canopy architecture traits on willow crop growth

Cerasuolo, M., Richter, G. M., Cunniff, J., Shield, I. F., Barraclough, T. J. P., Castle, M. and Karp, A. 2011. Effects of canopy architecture traits on willow crop growth. Systems Approaches to Crop Improvement. Aspects of Applied Biology 107 . pp. 63-69

Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels

Karp, A., Hanley, S. J., Trybush, S. O., Macalpine, W. J., Pei, M. H. and Shield, I. F. 2011. Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 53 (2), pp. 151-165.

Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals

Hodgson, E. M., Nowakowski, D. J., Shield, I. F., Riche, A. B., Bridgwater, A. V., Clifton-Brown, J. C. and Donnison, I. S. 2011. Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals. Bioresource Technology. 102, pp. 3411-3418.

Nitrogen requirements of biomass crops

Riche, A. B., Goulding, K. W. T., Yates, N. E., Shield, I. F. and Christian, D. G. 2010. Nitrogen requirements of biomass crops. Water and Nitrogen Use Eficiency in Plants and Crops. Aspects of Applied Biology 105 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 83-88

Willow has advanced as an energy crop but is the UK reaping the benefits?

Karp, A., Macalpine, W. J. and Shield, I. F. 2010. Willow has advanced as an energy crop but is the UK reaping the benefits?

Estimating root biomass in Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' using the electrical capacitance method

Pitre, F. E., Brereton, N. J. B., Audoire, S., Richter, G. M., Shield, I. F. and Karp, A. 2010. Estimating root biomass in Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' using the electrical capacitance method. Plant Biosystems. 144 (2), pp. 479-483.

Numerical and analytical study to estimate leaf distribution on the radiation interception in willow crops

Cerasuolo, M., Shield, I. F. and Richter, G. M. 2010. Numerical and analytical study to estimate leaf distribution on the radiation interception in willow crops. Abstracts Agro2010, the 11th ESA Congress, Montpellier, 29 August - 3 September 2010 . pp. 105-106

Mendelian inheritance of rust resistance to Melampsora larici-epitea in crosses between Salix sachalinensis and S. viminalis

Pei, M. H., Ruiz, C., Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J., Lindegaard, K., Bayon, C. and Karp, A. 2010. Mendelian inheritance of rust resistance to Melampsora larici-epitea in crosses between Salix sachalinensis and S. viminalis. Plant Pathology. 59 (5), pp. 862-872.

Miscanthus as a feedstock for fast-pyrolysis: does agronomic treatment affect quality?

Hodgson, E. M., Fahmi, R., Yates, N. E., Barraclough, T. J. P., Shield, I. F., Allison, G., Bridgwater, A. V. and Donnison, I. S. 2010. Miscanthus as a feedstock for fast-pyrolysis: does agronomic treatment affect quality? Bioresource Technology. 101 (15), pp. 6185-6191.

Comparing components of CO2 assimilation in a variety of willow species

Andralojc, P. J., Bencze, S., Guinard, J., Shield, I. F., Karp, A. and Parry, M. A. J. 2009. Comparing components of CO2 assimilation in a variety of willow species. Abstracts Plant Biology 2009, Honolulu, 18-22 July 2009 .

Host selection of the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus)

Aradottir, G. I., Karp, A., Hanley, S. J., Shield, I. F., Woodcock, C. M., Dewhirst, S. Y., Collins, M., Leather, S. and Harrington, R. 2009. Host selection of the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus).  REDIA, XCII, 2009: 223-225.

Measurement of key compositional parameters in two species of energy grass by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Allison, G. G., Morris, C., Hodgson, E., Jones, J., Kubacki, M., Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E., Shield, I. F., Bridgwater, A. V. and Donnison, I. S. 2009. Measurement of key compositional parameters in two species of energy grass by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bioresource Technology. 100, pp. 6428-6433.

A novel, integrated approach to assessing social, economic and environmental implications of changing rural land-use: a case study of perennial biomass crops

Haughton, A. J., Bond, A. J., Lovett, A. A., Dockerty, T., Sunnenberg, G., Clark, S. J., Bohan, D. A., Sage, R. B., Mallott, M. D., Mallott, V. E., Cunningham, M. D., Riche, A. B., Shield, I. F., Finch, J. W., Turner, M. M. and Karp, A. 2009. A novel, integrated approach to assessing social, economic and environmental implications of changing rural land-use: a case study of perennial biomass crops. Journal of Applied Ecology. 46 (2), pp. 315-322.

Quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin in perennial forage and energy grasses by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

Allison, G. G., Thain, S. C., Morris, P., Morris, C., Hawkins, S., Hauck, B., Barraclough, T. J. P., Yates, N. E., Shield, I. F., Bridgwater, A. V. and Donnison, I. S. 2009. Quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin in perennial forage and energy grasses by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression. Bioresource Technology. 100, pp. 1252-1261.

The effect of the size of the cuttings planted on the subsequent performance of three contrasting willow cultivars for short rotation coppice

Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J. and Karp, A. 2008. The effect of the size of the cuttings planted on the subsequent performance of three contrasting willow cultivars for short rotation coppice. Biomass and Energy Crops III. Aspects of Applied Biology 90 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 225-231

Overcoming barriers to crossing in willow (Salix spp.) breeding

Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F., Trybush, S. O., Hayes, C. M. and Karp, A. 2008. Overcoming barriers to crossing in willow (Salix spp.) breeding. Biomass and Energy Crops III. Aspects of Applied Biology 90 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 173-180

Controlling for competition in neighbouring field plots in a willow (Salix spp.) trial

Gezan, S. A., Macalpine, W. J., Shield, I. F. and Welham, S. J. 2008. Controlling for competition in neighbouring field plots in a willow (Salix spp.) trial. Biomass and Energy Crops III. Aspects of Applied Biology 90 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 181-187

Biomass fuel specification and matching to conversion processes

Barraclough, T. J. P. and Shield, I. F. 2008. Biomass fuel specification and matching to conversion processes. Biomass and Energy Crops III. Aspects of Applied Biology 90 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 283-286

The influence of agronomic treatment on the combustion characteristics of some energy crops

Darvell, L. I., Jones, J. M., Shield, I. F., Riche, A. B., Yates, N. E. and Barraclough, T. J. P. 2008. The influence of agronomic treatment on the combustion characteristics of some energy crops. Biomass and Energy Crops III. Aspects of Applied Biology 90 . Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Wellesbourne Warwick . pp. 269-276

Biomass and energy crops III (Aspects of Applied Biology 90)

Booth, E., Green, M., Karp, A., Shield, I. F. and Stock, D. Turley, D. (ed.) 2008. Biomass and energy crops III (Aspects of Applied Biology 90). Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne.

Bioenergy from plants and the sustainable yield challenge

Karp, A. and Shield, I. F. 2008. Bioenergy from plants and the sustainable yield challenge. New Phytologist. 179, pp. 15-32.

Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties

Bridgeman, T. G., Jones, J. M., Shield, I. F. and Williams, P. T. 2008. Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties. Fuel. 87, pp. 844-856.

RELU-Biomass: social, economic and environmental implications of increasing rural land use under energy crops

Karp, A., Riche, A. B., Shield, I. F., Haughton, A. J., Bohan, D. A., Lovett, A., Sunnenberg, G., Bond, A., Finch, J., Rosier, P., Turner, M., Farrar, J., Martin, G., Sage, R. and Cunningham, M. 2007. RELU-Biomass: social, economic and environmental implications of increasing rural land use under energy crops. Abstracts 16th International Plant Protection Congress (IPPC), Glasgow, 15-18 October 2007 .

Influence of particle size on the analytical and chemical properties of two energy crops

Bridgeman, T. G., Darvell, L. I., Jones, J. M., Williams, P. T., Fahmi, R., Bridgwater, A. V., Barraclough, T. J. P., Shield, I. F., Yates, N. E., Thain, S. C. and Donnison, I. S. 2007. Influence of particle size on the analytical and chemical properties of two energy crops. Fuel. 86, pp. 60-72.

Biofuels and other approaches for decreasing fossil fuel emissions from agriculture

Powlson, D. S., Riche, A. B. and Shield, I. F. 2005. Biofuels and other approaches for decreasing fossil fuel emissions from agriculture. Annals of Applied Biology. 146 (2), pp. 193-201.

Field-based nutritional response evaluation of the intolerant white lupin (Lupinus albus ) cultivar Lucyanne to a lime-amended soil

Kerley, S. J., Shield, I. F., Scott, T. and Stevenson, H. 2004. Field-based nutritional response evaluation of the intolerant white lupin (Lupinus albus ) cultivar Lucyanne to a lime-amended soil. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 142, pp. 153-161.

Climate change and soil functions: consequences of inaction and possible mitigations through land management

Powlson, D. S., Falloon, P., Coleman, K., Cox, P., Gaunt, J. L., Shield, I. F., Riche, A. B. and Whitmore, A. P. 2003. Climate change and soil functions: consequences of inaction and possible mitigations through land management. Abstracts ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting. Changing Sciences for a Changing World: Building a Broader Vision, Denver, 2-6 November 2003 .

The potential of legumes to reduce nitrogen fertiliser use and protein imports into the UK: financial and environmental imperatives

Hall, R., Dixon-Dawson, J., Andrews, M., Andrews, M. E. and Shield, I. F. 2003. The potential of legumes to reduce nitrogen fertiliser use and protein imports into the UK: financial and environmental imperatives. Crop Quality: its Role in Sustainable Livestock Production. Aspects of Applied Biology 70 . pp. 5-15

Climate change and soil functions: consequences of inaction and possible mitigations through land management

Powlson, D. S., Falloon, P., Coleman, K., Cox, P., Gaunt, J. L., Shield, I. F. and Whitmore, A. P. 2003. Climate change and soil functions: consequences of inaction and possible mitigations through land management. Abstracts ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting. Changing Sciences for a Changing World: Building a Broader Vision, Denver, 2-6 November 2003 .

The effects of seed rate and row spacing on light interception, dry matter accumulation and seed yield in non-dwarf and dwarf genotypes of autumn-sown determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in north-west Europe

Shield, I. F., Scott, T., Huyghe, C., Bruneau, M., Parisseaux, B., Papineau, J., Harzic, N., Stevenson, H. J. and Leach, J. E. 2002. The effects of seed rate and row spacing on light interception, dry matter accumulation and seed yield in non-dwarf and dwarf genotypes of autumn-sown determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in north-west Europe. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 138, pp. 39-55.

The causes of, and potential solutions to, seed yield instability in autumn-sown, determinate (restricted branching), white lupins (Lupinus albus L.)

Shield, I. F., Stevenson, H. J., Scott, T. and Leach, J. E. 2001. The causes of, and potential solutions to, seed yield instability in autumn-sown, determinate (restricted branching), white lupins (Lupinus albus L.). vanSanten, E., Roemer, P., Weissmann, S. and Wink, M. (ed.) Lupin, an Ancient Crop for the New Millenium. Proceedings 9th International Lupin Conference, Klink/Muritz, 20-24 June 1999 . International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand. pp. 339-345

The intolerance of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to alkaline soils and its adaptation to a patchy soil environment

Kerley, S. J. and Shield, I. F. 2001. The intolerance of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to alkaline soils and its adaptation to a patchy soil environment. vanSanten, E., Roemer, P., Weissmann, S. and Wink, M. (ed.) Lupin, an Ancient Crop for the New Millennium. Proceedings of the 9th International Lupin Conference, Klink/Muritz, 20-24 June 1999 . International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand. pp. 243-245

Specific and genotypic variation in the nutrient content of lupin species in soils of neutral and alkaline pH

Kerley, S. J., Shield, I. F. and Huyghe, C. 2001. Specific and genotypic variation in the nutrient content of lupin species in soils of neutral and alkaline pH. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 52, pp. 93-102.

Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation during pod wall development of white lupin genotypes differing in proportion of pod walls

Lagunes-Espinoza, L. C., Huyghe, C., Papineau, J. and Shield, I. F. 2000. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation during pod wall development of white lupin genotypes differing in proportion of pod walls. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 135, pp. 389-397.

The causes of over-winter plant losses of autumn-sown white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in different regions of the UK over three seasons

Shield, I. F., Scott, T., Stevenson, H. J., Leach, J. E. and Todd, A. D. 2000. The causes of over-winter plant losses of autumn-sown white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in different regions of the UK over three seasons. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 135, pp. 173-183.

The causes of, and potential solutions to, yield instability in autumn-sown, determinate (restricted branching) white lupins (Lupinus albus L.)

Shield, I. F., Stevenson, H. J., Scott, T., Leach, J. E. and Milford, G. F. J. 1999. The causes of, and potential solutions to, yield instability in autumn-sown, determinate (restricted branching) white lupins (Lupinus albus L.). Abstracts 9th International Lupin Conference: Lupin - an Ancient Crop for the New Millennium, Klink, 20-24 June 1999 . pp. 297

The intolerance of the white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to alkaline soils and its adaptation to a patchy soil environment

Kerley, S. J. and Shield, I. F. 1999. The intolerance of the white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to alkaline soils and its adaptation to a patchy soil environment. Abstracts 9th International Lupin Conference: Lupin - an Ancient Crop for the New Millennium, Klink, 20-24 June 1999 . pp. 147

Organisation and objectives of the European LUPIN Programme

Huyghe, C., Harzic, N., Milford, G. F. J., Shield, I. F., Gamerre, V., Christiansen, J., Jornsgard, B., Romer, P., De Rocha, J. and Knudsen, K. E. B. 1999. Organisation and objectives of the European LUPIN Programme. Abstracts 9th International Lupin Conference: Lupin - an Ancient Crop for the New Millennium, Klink, 20-24 June 1999 . pp. 123

The performance of autumn-sown determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus L.) in different regions of the UK, 1997 and 1998

Shield, I. F., Lockley, K. D., Carpanini, J. J., Spink, J. H. and Snowden, K. 1999. The performance of autumn-sown determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus L.) in different regions of the UK, 1997 and 1998. Protection and Production of Combinable Break Crops. Aspects of Applied Biology 56 . pp. 219-225

The use of physiological criteria to optimise production in white lupins

Milford, G. F. J., Shield, I. F. and Huyghe, C. 1999. The use of physiological criteria to optimise production in white lupins. Proceedings 8th International Lupin Conference, Monterey, 1996 . pp. 2-10

Comparison of autumn-sown white lupin cultivars (Lupinus albus) for the UK

Leach, J. E., Stevenson, H. J., Shield, I. F., Scott, T. and Milford, G. F. J. 1999. Comparison of autumn-sown white lupin cultivars (Lupinus albus) for the UK. Association of Applied Biologists.

Seed and pod development of autumn-sown, determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in relation to the assimilation and distribution of dry matter and nitrogen in crops grown at different densities

Milford, G. F. J., Shield, I. F., Stevenson, H. J., Scott, T. and Leach, J. E. 1999. Seed and pod development of autumn-sown, determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in relation to the assimilation and distribution of dry matter and nitrogen in crops grown at different densities. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 133, pp. 141-150.

A comparison of management regimes for one-year rotational set-aside within a sequence of winter wheat crops, and of growing wheat without interruption. 2. Effects on vegetation and weed control

Shield, I. F. and Bacon, E. T. G. 1998. A comparison of management regimes for one-year rotational set-aside within a sequence of winter wheat crops, and of growing wheat without interruption. 2. Effects on vegetation and weed control. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 130, pp. 389-397.

Daylength responses, flowering time, and seed filling in lupins

Dracup, M., Thomson, B., Reader, M., Kirby, E. J. M., Shield, I. F. and Leach, J. E. 1998. Daylength responses, flowering time, and seed filling in lupins. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 49, pp. 1047-1055.

Factors affecting winter survival of the florally determinate white lupin cv. Lucyane

Bateman, G. L., Ferguson, A. W. and Shield, I. F. 1997. Factors affecting winter survival of the florally determinate white lupin cv. Lucyane. Annals of Applied Biology. 130 (2), pp. 349-359.

The place of autumn sown lupins in arable rotations in Northern Britain

Shield, I. F. and Scott, T. 1996. The place of autumn sown lupins in arable rotations in Northern Britain. Rotations and Cropping Systems. Aspects of Applied Biology 47 . pp. 375-378

The costs of alternative methods of managing set-aside land within the European Community

Shield, I. F., Godwin, R. J. and Smith, D. L. O. 1996. The costs of alternative methods of managing set-aside land within the European Community. Soil & Tillage Research. 37, pp. 273-287.

The potential of lupins for UK agriculture

Milford, G. F. J. and Shield, I. F. 1996. The potential of lupins for UK agriculture. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. 157, pp. 84-91.

Effect of sowing date and planting density on the structure and yield of autumn-sown, florally-determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in the United Kingdom

Shield, I. F., Stevenson, H. J., Leach, J. E., Scott, T., Day, J. M. and Milford, G. F. J. 1996. Effect of sowing date and planting density on the structure and yield of autumn-sown, florally-determinate white lupins (Lupinus albus ) in the United Kingdom. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 127, pp. 183-191.

Simple physiological models of plant development for the white lupin (Lupinus albus ) and their use in agricultural practice

Milford, G. F. J., Shield, I. F., Siddons, P. A., Jones, R. J. A. and Huyghe, C. 1996. Simple physiological models of plant development for the white lupin (Lupinus albus ) and their use in agricultural practice. Modelling in Applied Biology. Aspects of Applied Biology 46 . pp. 1-6

The performance of autumn-sown determinate genotypes of the white lupin (Lupinus albus ) in different regions of the United Kingdom

Shield, I. F. and Milford, G. F. J. 1995. The performance of autumn-sown determinate genotypes of the white lupin (Lupinus albus ) in different regions of the United Kingdom. Proceedings 2nd European Grain Legume Conference, Copenhagen, 1995 . pp. 144

Total views of outputs: 437

Total downloads of outputs: 427

Views of outputs this month: 54

Downloads of outputs this month: 44