Richard Whalley

NameRichard Whalley
Job titlePrincipal Research Scientist - Soil Physics
Email addressrichard.whalley@rothamsted.ac.uk
DepartmentSustainable Agriculture Sciences Harpenden
Research clusterSAS-H: Soil Biology
Preferred citationWhalley, W. R.
OfficeHarpenden

Research outputs

Physical properties of a sandy soil as affected by incubation with a synthetic root exudate - strength, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, and evaporation

Zhang, W., Gao, W., Whalley, W. R. and Ren, T. 2020. Physical properties of a sandy soil as affected by incubation with a synthetic root exudate - strength, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, and evaporation. European Journal of Soil Science. pp. 1-11.

Time-intensive geoelectrical monitoring under winter wheat

Blanchy, G., Virlet, N., Sadeghi-Tehran, P., Watts, C. W., Hawkesford, M. J., Whalley, W. R. and Binley, A. 2020. Time-intensive geoelectrical monitoring under winter wheat . Near Surface Geophysics.

A comparison between water uptake and root length density in winter wheat: effects of root density and rhizosphere properties

Whalley, W. R., Zhang, X., Whalley, P. A., Ashton, R. W., Evans, J., Hawkesford, M. J., Griffiths, G., Huang, Z. D., Zhou, H. and Mooney, S. J. 2020. A comparison between water uptake and root length density in winter wheat: effects of root density and rhizosphere properties . Plant and Soil.

A novel approach to estimate soil penetrometer resistance from water content, bulk density, and shear wave velocity: A laboratory study on a loamy sand soil

Zhang, W., Gao, W., Ren, T. and Whalley, W. R. 2020. A novel approach to estimate soil penetrometer resistance from water content, bulk density, and shear wave velocity: A laboratory study on a loamy sand soil. Geoderma. 368 (1 June), p. 114276.

Soil strength influences wheat root interactions with soil macropores

Atkinson, J. A., Hawkesford, M. J., Whalley, W. R., Zhou, H. and Money, S. J. 2019. Soil strength influences wheat root interactions with soil macropores. Plant, Cell and Environment. pp. 1-11.

The relationships between seedling root screens, root growth in the field and grain yield for wheat

Bai, C., Ge, Y., Ashton, R. W., Evans, J., Milne, A. E., Hawkesford, M. J., Whalley, W. R., Parry, M. A. J., Melichar, J., Feuerhelm, D., Bansept, P. and Bartsch, M. 2019. The relationships between seedling root screens, root growth in the field and grain yield for wheat . Plant and Soil.

Multiple abiotic stress, nitrate availability and the growth of wheat

Ge, Y., Hawkesford, M. J., Rosolem, C. A., Mooney, S. J., Ashton, R. W., Evans, J. and Whalley, W. R. 2019. Multiple abiotic stress, nitrate availability and the growth of wheat . Soil & Tillage Research. 191 (August), pp. 171-184.

The role of plant species and soil condition in the structural development of the rhizosphere

Helliwell, J. R., Sturrock, C. J., Miller, A. J., Whalley, W. R. and Mooney, S. J. 2019. The role of plant species and soil condition in the structural development of the rhizosphere. Plant, Cell and Environment. 42 (6), pp. 1974-1986.

Shrinkage characteristics of lime concretion black soil as affected by biochar amendment

Wei, C., Gao, W., Whalley, W. R. and Li, B. 2018. Shrinkage characteristics of lime concretion black soil as affected by biochar amendment. Pedosphere. 28 (5), pp. 713-725.

Improved Interpretation of Mercury Intrusion and Soil Water Retention Percolation Characteristics by Inverse Modelling and Void Cluster Analysis

Matthews, G. P., Levy, C. L., Laudone, G. M., Jones, K. L., Ridgway, C. J., Hallin, I. L., Gazze, S. A., Francis, L., Whalley, W. R., Schoelkopf, J. and Gane, P. A. C. 2018. Improved Interpretation of Mercury Intrusion and Soil Water Retention Percolation Characteristics by Inverse Modelling and Void Cluster Analysis. Transport In Porous Media.

The effect of microbial activity on soil water diffusivity

Choudhury, B. U., Ferraris, S., Ashton, R. W., Powlson, D. S. and Whalley, W. R. 2018. The effect of microbial activity on soil water diffusivity. European Journal of Soil Science. 69 (3), pp. 407-413.

A novel dielectric tensiometer enabling precision PID-based irrigation control of polytunnel-grown strawberries in coir

Goodchild, M. S., Jenkins, M. D., Whalley, W. R. and Watts, C. W. 2018. A novel dielectric tensiometer enabling precision PID-based irrigation control of polytunnel-grown strawberries in coir. Biosystems Engineering. 165 (January), pp. 70-76.

The emergent rhizosphere: imaging the development of the porous architecture at the root-soil interface

Helliwell, J. R., Sturrock, C. J., Mairhofer, S., Craigon, J., Ashton, R. W., Miller, A. J., Whalley, W. R. and Mooney, S. J. 2017. The emergent rhizosphere: imaging the development of the porous architecture at the root-soil interface. Scientific Reports. 7, p. 14875.

Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil

Cardenas, L. M., Bol, R., Lewicka-Szczebak, D., Gregory, A. S., Matthews, G. P., Whalley, W. R., Misselbrook, T. H., Scholefield, D. and Well, R. 2017. Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil. Biogeosciences. 14 (20), pp. 4691-4710.

Root growth in field-grown winter wheat: Some effects of soil conditions, season and genotype.

Hodgkinson, L., Dodd, I. C., Binley, A., Ashton, R. W., White, R. P., Watts, C. W. and Whalley, W. R. 2017. Root growth in field-grown winter wheat: Some effects of soil conditions, season and genotype. European Journal of Agronomy. 91 (November), pp. 74-83.

Enhanced Plant Rooting and Crop System Management for Improved N Use Efficiency

Rosolem, C. A., Ritz, K., Cantarella, H., Hawkesford, M. J., Whalley, W. R. and Mooney, S. J. 2017. Enhanced Plant Rooting and Crop System Management for Improved N Use Efficiency. in: Sparks, D. L. (ed.) Advances in Agronomy Vol.146 Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science.

Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root–Soil Interaction

Jin, K., White, P. J., Whalley, W. R., Shen, J. and Shi, L. 2017. Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root–Soil Interaction. Trends in Plant Science. 22 (10), pp. 823-829.

Effect of microbial activity on penetrometer resistance and elastic modulus of soil at different temperatures

Gao, W., Muñoz-Romero, V., Ren, T., Ashton, R. W., Morin, M., Clark, I. M., Powlson, D. S. and Whalley, W. R. 2017. Effect of microbial activity on penetrometer resistance and elastic modulus of soil at different temperatures. European Journal of Soil Science. 68 (4), pp. 412-419.

Methods to estimate changes in soil water for phenotyping root activity in the field

Whalley, W. R., Binley, A., Watts, C. W., Shanahan, P., Dodd, I. C., Ober, E. S., Ashton, R. W., Webster, C. P., White, R. P. and Hawkesford, M. J. 2017. Methods to estimate changes in soil water for phenotyping root activity in the field. Plant and Soil. 415 (1-2), pp. 407-422.

Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize

Zhang, D. S., Zhang, C. C., Tang, X. Y., Li, H. G., Zhang, F-S., Rengel, Z., Whalley, W. R., Davies, W. J. and Shen, J. B. 2016. Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize. New Phytologist. 209 (2), pp. 823-831.

On the theory of Brutsaert about elastic wave speeds in unsaturated soils

Shin, H., Whalley, W. R., Attenborough, K. and Taherzadeh, S. 2016. On the theory of Brutsaert about elastic wave speeds in unsaturated soils. Soil & Tillage Research. 156, pp. 155-165.

A simple model to predict soil penetrometer resistance as a function of density, drying and depth in the field

Gao, W. D., Whalley, W. R., Tian, Z. C., Liu, J. and Ren, T. S. 2016. A simple model to predict soil penetrometer resistance as a function of density, drying and depth in the field. Soil & Tillage Research. 155, pp. 190-198.

Major crop species show differential balance between root morphological and physiological responses to variable phosphorus supply

Lyu, Y., Tang, H. L., Li, H. G., Zhang, F-S., Rengel, Z., Whalley, W. R., Shen, J. B. and Stralia, V. P. 2016. Major crop species show differential balance between root morphological and physiological responses to variable phosphorus supply. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7.

Effect of compaction on nitrous oxide and nitrogen emissions from UK soils

Cardenas, L. M., Matthews, G. P., Gregory, A. S., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A., Misselbrook, T. H., Laudone, G. M., Dhanoa, M. S. and Scholefield, D. 2016. Effect of compaction on nitrous oxide and nitrogen emissions from UK soils. Abstract for GGAA conferernce, Melbourne, 14-18 February, 2016.

Deep roots and soil structure

Gao, W., Hodgkinson, L., Jin, K., Watts, C. W., Ashton, R. W., Shen, J., Ren, T., Dodd, I. C., Binley, A., Phillips, A. L., Hedden, P., Hawkesford, M. J. and Whalley, W. R. 2016. Deep roots and soil structure. Plant, Cell and Environment. 39 (8), pp. 1662-1668.

Uniting genetics and chemistry to reduce the risk of take-all disease in 2nd wheat crops

Moughan, J., Mcmillan, V. E., Melichar, J., Ranner, D., Thornton, C., Whalley, W. R. and Hammond-Kosack, K. E. 2015. Uniting genetics and chemistry to reduce the risk of take-all disease in 2nd wheat crops. Abstracts 9th Symposium International Society for Root Research (ISRR) "Roots Down Under", Canberra, Australia, 6-9 Octomber, 2015. pp. P90

Exploring the susceptibility of cereal species to Phialophora fungi

Osborne, S., Mcmillan, V. E., Whalley, W. R., Foulkes, J. and Hammond-Kosack, K. E. 2015. Exploring the susceptibility of cereal species to Phialophora fungi. Abstracts Molecular Biology of Plant Pathogens Conference (MBPP), University of West England, Bristol, 8-9 April, 2015. pp. 56

The use of electromagnetic induction to monitor changes in soil moisture profiles beneath different wheat genotypes

Shanahan, P. W., Binley, A., Whalley, W. R. and Watts, C. W. 2015. The use of electromagnetic induction to monitor changes in soil moisture profiles beneath different wheat genotypes. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 79, pp. 459-466.

The effect of impedance to root growth on plant architecture in wheat

Jin, K., Shen, J., Ashton, R. W., White, Robin P., Dodd, I. C., Phillips, A. L., Parry, M. A. J. and Whalley, W. R. 2015. The effect of impedance to root growth on plant architecture in wheat. Plant and Soil. 392, pp. 323-332.

Isotope fractionation factors controlling isotopocule signatures of soil-emitted N2O produced by denitrification processes of various rates

Lewicka-Szczebak, D., Well, R., Bol, R., Gregory, A. S., Matthews, G. P., Misselbrook, T. H., Whalley, W. R. and Cardenas, L. M. 2015. Isotope fractionation factors controlling isotopocule signatures of soil-emitted N2O produced by denitrification processes of various rates. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 29 (3), pp. 269-282.

Wheat root growth responses to horizontal stratification of fertiliser in a water-limited environment

Jin, K., Shen, J., Ashton, R. W., White, Robin P., Dodd, I. C., Parry, M. A. J. and Whalley, W. R. 2015. Wheat root growth responses to horizontal stratification of fertiliser in a water-limited environment. Plant and Soil. 386, pp. 77-88.

Crop emergence, the impact of mechanical impedance

Whalley, W. R. and Finch-Savage, W. E. 2011. Crop emergence, the impact of mechanical impedance. in: Glinski, J., Lipiec, J. and Horabik, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of agrophysics Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 163-167

Triaxial testing to determine the effect of soil type and organic carbon content on soil consolidation and shear deformation characteristics

Chakraborty, D., Watts, C. W., Powlson, D. S., Macdonald, A. J., Ashton, R. W., White, Robin P. and Whalley, W. R. 2014. Triaxial testing to determine the effect of soil type and organic carbon content on soil consolidation and shear deformation characteristics. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 78, pp. 1192-1200.

Quantifying the impact of microbes on soil structural development and behaviour in wet soils

Helliwell, J. R., Miller, A. J., Whalley, W. R., Mooney, S. J. and Sturrock, C. J. 2014. Quantifying the impact of microbes on soil structural development and behaviour in wet soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 74, pp. 138-147.

Soil physics: new approaches and emerging challenges

Hallett, P., Mooney, S. and Whalley, W. R. 2013. Soil physics: new approaches and emerging challenges. European Journal of Soil Science. 64 (3), pp. 277-278.

Estimating penetrometer resistance and matric potential from the velocities of shear and compression waves

Gao, W., Watts, C. W., Ren, T., Shin, H-C., Taherzadeh, S., Attenborough, K., Jenkins, M. and Whalley, W. R. 2013. Estimating penetrometer resistance and matric potential from the velocities of shear and compression waves. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 77, pp. 721-728.

Modelling the path to better soil applied pesticides

Sweeney, P., Travis, K., Whalley, W. R., Whitmore, A. P., Dailey, A. G., Wu, L., Van Beinum, W. and Brown, C. 2013. Modelling the path to better soil applied pesticides. Abstracts Conference on Pesticide Behaviour in Soils, Water and Air, York, 2-4 September 2013 .

How do roots elongate in a structured soil?

Jin, K., Shen, J., Ashton, R. W., Dodd, I. C., Parry, M. A. J. and Whalley, W. R. 2013. How do roots elongate in a structured soil? Journal of Experimental Botany. 64, pp. 4761-4777.

The involvement of gibberellin signalling in the effect of soil resistance to root penetration on leaf elongation and tiller number in wheat

Coelho Filho, M. A., Colebrook, E. H., Lloyd, D. P. A., Webster, C. P., Mooney, S. J., Phillips, A. L., Hedden, P. and Whalley, W. R. 2013. The involvement of gibberellin signalling in the effect of soil resistance to root penetration on leaf elongation and tiller number in wheat. Plant and Soil. 371, pp. 81-94.

Measurement of the matric potential of soil water in the rhizosphere

Whalley, W. R., Ober, E. S. and Jenkins, M. 2013. Measurement of the matric potential of soil water in the rhizosphere. Journal of Experimental Botany. 64, pp. 3951-3963.

Soil mechanical resistance and root growth and function

Whalley, W. R. and Bengough, A. G. 2013. Soil mechanical resistance and root growth and function. in: Beeckman, T. and Eshel, A. (ed.) Plant roots: the hidden half, 4th ed CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 37.1-37.15

Non-invasive characterization of pore-related and elastic properties of soils in linear Biot-Stoll theory using acoustic-to-seismic coupling

Shin, H-C., Taherzadeh, S., Attenborough, K., Whalley, W. R. and Watts, C. W. 2013. Non-invasive characterization of pore-related and elastic properties of soils in linear Biot-Stoll theory using acoustic-to-seismic coupling. European Journal of Soil Science. 64 (3), pp. 308-323.

A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

Macleod, C. J. A., Humphreys, M. W., Whalley, W. R., Turner, L., Binley, A., Watts, C. W., Skot, L., Joynes, A., Hawkins, S., King, I. P., O'donovan, S. and Haygarth, P. M. 2013. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions. Scientific Reports. 3, p. 1683.

A dual-porous, inverse model of water retention to study biological and hydrological interactions in soil

Laudone, G. M., Matthews, G. P., Gregory, A. S., Bird, N. R. A. and Whalley, W. R. 2013. A dual-porous, inverse model of water retention to study biological and hydrological interactions in soil. European Journal of Soil Science. 64 (3), pp. 345-356.

Applications of X-ray computed tomography for examining biophysical interactions and structural development in soil systems: a review

Helliwell, J. R., Sturrock, C. J., Grayling, K. M., Tracy, S. R., Flavel, R. J., Young, I. M., Whalley, W. R. and Mooney, S. J. 2013. Applications of X-ray computed tomography for examining biophysical interactions and structural development in soil systems: a review. European Journal of Soil Science. 64 (3), pp. 279-297.

Genotypic variation in the ability of wheat roots to penetrate wax layers

Whalley, W. R., Dodd, I. C., Watts, C. W., Webster, C. P., Phillips, A. L., Andralojc, P. J., White, Robin P., Davies, W. J. and Parry, M. A. J. 2013. Genotypic variation in the ability of wheat roots to penetrate wax layers. Plant and Soil. 364, pp. 171-179.

Natural capital and ecosystem services, developing an appropriate soils framework as a basis for valuation

Robinson, D. A., Hockley, N., Cooper, D. M., Emmett, B. A., Keith, A. M., Lebron, I., Reynolds, B., Tipping, E., Tye, A. M., Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Black, H. I. J., Warren, G. P. and Robinson, J. S. 2013. Natural capital and ecosystem services, developing an appropriate soils framework as a basis for valuation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 57, pp. 1023-1033.

Roots, water and nutrient acquisition: let's get physical

Chapman, N., Miller, A. J., Lindsey, K. and Whalley, W. R. 2012. Roots, water and nutrient acquisition: let's get physical. Trends in Plant Science. 17 (12), pp. 701-710.

The velocity of shear waves in unsaturated soil

Whalley, W. R., Jenkins, M. and Attenborough, K. 2012. The velocity of shear waves in unsaturated soil. Soil & Tillage Research. 125, pp. 30-37.

The effect of compaction and shear deformation of saturated soil on hydraulic conductivity

Whalley, W. R., Matthews, G. P. and Ferraris, S. 2012. The effect of compaction and shear deformation of saturated soil on hydraulic conductivity. Soil & Tillage Research. 125, pp. 23-29.

The effects of compaction and soil drying on penetrometer resistance

Gao, W., Watts, C. W., Ren, T. and Whalley, W. R. 2012. The effects of compaction and soil drying on penetrometer resistance. Soil & Tillage Research. 125, pp. 14-22.

Predicting penetrometer resistance from the compression characteristic of soil

Gao, W., Ren, T., Bengough, A. G., Auneau, L., Watts, C. W. and Whalley, W. R. 2012. Predicting penetrometer resistance from the compression characteristic of soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 76, pp. 361-369.

Isotope fractionation factors controlling isotopologue signatures of soil-emitted N2O produced by denitrification processes of various rates

Lewicka-Szczebak, D., Well, R., Cardenas, L. M., Matthews, P., Misselbrook, T. H., Bol, R., Whalley, W. R. and Gregory, A. S. 2012. Isotope fractionation factors controlling isotopologue signatures of soil-emitted N2O produced by denitrification processes of various rates. Abstracts 6th International Symposium on Isotopomers, Washington, DC, 18-22 June 2012 . pp. 51

A dual porous model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission

Laudone, G. M., Matthews, G. P., Bird, N. R. A., Whalley, W. R., Cardenas, L. M. and Gregory, A. S. 2012. A dual porous model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission. Abstracts 4th International Congress Eurosoil 2012, Bari, 2-6 July 2012 .

Influence of organic matter on rheological properties of soil

Markgraf, W., Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Hrkac, T. and Horn, R. 2012. Influence of organic matter on rheological properties of soil. Applied Clay Science. 64, pp. 25-33.

Genetic and management approaches to boost UK wheat yields by ameliorating water deficits

Dodd, I. C., Whalley, W. R., Ober, E. S. and Parry, M. A. J. 2011. Genetic and management approaches to boost UK wheat yields by ameliorating water deficits. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62, pp. 5241-5248.

A model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission

Laudone, G. M., Matthews, G. P., Bird, N. R. A., Whalley, W. R., Cardenas, L. M. and Gregory, A. S. 2011. A model to predict the effects of soil structure on denitrification and N2O emission. Journal of Hydrology. 409, pp. 283-290.

The velocity of shear waves in saturated soil

Whalley, W. R., Jenkins, M. and Attenborough, K. 2011. The velocity of shear waves in saturated soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75, pp. 1652-1657.

Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis

Chapman, N., Whalley, W. R., Lindsey, K. and Miller, A. J. 2011. Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant, Cell and Environment. 34 (10), pp. 1630-1638.

Drought stress, effect on soil mechanical impedance and root (crop) growth

Whalley, W. R. and Clark, L. J. 2011. Drought stress, effect on soil mechanical impedance and root (crop) growth.

Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil

Cardenas, L. M., Butler, M., Gregory, A. S., Matthews, G. P., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A., Misselbrook, T. H., Laudone, G. M. and Scholefield, D. 2011. Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil. Abstracts Conference on Nitrogen and Global Change: Key Findings - Future Challenges, Edinburgh, 11-15 April 2011 .

Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions

Dejong, J. T., Soga, K., Banwart, S. A., Whalley, W. R., Ginn, T. R., Nelson, D. C., Mortensen, B. M., Martinez, B. C. and Barkouki, T. 2011. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 8, pp. 1-15.

Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services

Powlson, D. S., Gregory, P. J., Whalley, W. R., Quinton, J. N., Hopkins, D. W., Whitmore, A. P., Hirsch, P. R. and Goulding, K. W. T. 2011. Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services. Food Policy. 36, pp. S72-S87.

Estimating soil strength in the rooting zone of wheat

Whitmore, A. P., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A., Watts, C. W. and Gregory, A. S. 2011. Estimating soil strength in the rooting zone of wheat. Plant and Soil. 339, pp. 363-375.

Separating the effects of water and nitrate stress on root system architecture

Chapman, N., Whalley, W. R., Miller, A. J. and Lindsey, K. 2010. Separating the effects of water and nitrate stress on root system architecture. Abstracts 15th International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology, Adelaide, 19-24 September 2010 . pp. 61

Root water potential integrates discrete soil physical properties to influence ABA signalling during partial rootzone drying

Dodd, I. C., Egea, G., Watts, C. W. and Whalley, W. R. 2010. Root water potential integrates discrete soil physical properties to influence ABA signalling during partial rootzone drying. Journal of Experimental Botany. 61, pp. 3543-3551.

Measurement and simulation of the effect of compaction on the pore structure and saturated hydraulic conductivity of grassland and arable soil

Matthews, G. P., Laudone, G. M., Gregory, A. S., Bird, N. R. A., Matthews, A. G. De G. and Whalley, W. R. 2010. Measurement and simulation of the effect of compaction on the pore structure and saturated hydraulic conductivity of grassland and arable soil. Water Resources Research. 46, p. W05501 (13pp).

Estimating relative hydraulic conductivity from the water release characteristic of a shrinking clay soil

Gregory, A. S., Bird, N. R. A., Whalley, W. R. and Matthews, G. P. 2010. Estimating relative hydraulic conductivity from the water release characteristic of a shrinking clay soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74, pp. 1113-1118.

Deformation and shrinkage effects on the soil water release characteristic

Gregory, A. S., Bird, N. R. A., Whalley, W. R., Matthews, G. P. and Young, I. M. 2010. Deformation and shrinkage effects on the soil water release characteristic. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74, pp. 1104-1112.

A dual-porous, biophysical void structure model of soil for the understanding of the conditions causing nitrous oxide emission

Matthews, G. P., Laudone, G. M., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A., Gregory, A. S., Cardenas, L. M. and Misselbrook, T. H. 2010. A dual-porous, biophysical void structure model of soil for the understanding of the conditions causing nitrous oxide emission. European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Soil management and grass species effects on the hydraulic properties of shrinking soils

Gregory, A. S., Webster, C. P., Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Macleod, C. J. A., Joynes, A., Papadopoulos, A., Haygarth, P. M., Binley, A., Humphreys, M. W., Turner, L. B., Skot, L. and Matthews, G. P. 2010. Soil management and grass species effects on the hydraulic properties of shrinking soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74, pp. 753-761.

Measurement of low matric potentials with porous matrix sensors and water-filled tensiometers

Whalley, W. R., Lock, G., Jenkins, M., Peloe, T., Burek, K., Balendonck, J., Take, W. A., Tuzel, I. H. and Tuzel, Y. 2009. Measurement of low matric potentials with porous matrix sensors and water-filled tensiometers. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 73 (6), pp. 1796-1803.

Long-term effects of fertilizing systems on soil microstructure: rheological investigations of Rothamsted soils classifying stiffness degradation

Markgraf, W., Horn, R., Watts, C. W. and Whalley, W. R. 2009. Long-term effects of fertilizing systems on soil microstructure: rheological investigations of Rothamsted soils classifying stiffness degradation. ISTRO 18th Triennial Conference Proceedings, Izmir, Turkey, 15-19 June 2009 . pp. T4-025-1-8

Linking plant biology and soil physics to understand hillslope hydrology

Macleod, C. J. A., Binley, A., Clark, L. J., Gregory, A. S., Hawkins, S. L., Humphreys, M., Joynes, A., Papdopoulos, A., Skot, L., Stone, A., Turner, L. B., Watts, C. W., Webster, C. P., Whalley, W. R. and Haygarth, P. M. 2009. Linking plant biology and soil physics to understand hillslope hydrology. Abstracts European Geophysical Union General Assembly, Vienna, 19-24 April 2009 .

Measurement and pore-level modelling of the production of nitrous oxide from soil

Matthews, G. P., Laudone, G. M., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A., Gregory, A. S., Cardenas, L. M. and Misselbrook, T. H. 2009. Measurement and pore-level modelling of the production of nitrous oxide from soil. Abstracts 2nd International Conference on Biohydrology 2009: a Changing Climate for Biology and Soil Hydrology Interactions, Bratislava, 21-24 September 2009 .

Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth

Whitmore, A. P. and Whalley, W. R. 2009. Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60, pp. 2845-2857.

A bioinformatic and transcriptomic approach to identifying positional candidate genes without fine mapping: an example using rice root-growth QTLs

Norton, G. J., Aitkenhead, M. J., Khowaja, F. S., Whalley, W. R. and Price, A. H. 2008. A bioinformatic and transcriptomic approach to identifying positional candidate genes without fine mapping: an example using rice root-growth QTLs. Genomics. 92 (5), pp. 344-352.

Evidence from near-isogenic lines that root penetration increases with root diameter and bending stiffness in rice

Clark, L. J., Price, A. H., Steele, K. A. and Whalley, W. R. 2008. Evidence from near-isogenic lines that root penetration increases with root diameter and bending stiffness in rice. Functional Plant Biology. 35, pp. 1163-1171.

Wetting of agricultural soil measured by a simplified capillary rise technique

Matthews, G. P., Watts, C. W., Powlson, D. S., Price, J. C. and Whalley, W. R. 2008. Wetting of agricultural soil measured by a simplified capillary rise technique. European Journal of Soil Science. 59 (4), pp. 817-823.

A gradual rather than abrupt increase in soil strength gives better root penetration of strong layers

Clark, L. J., Ferraris, S., Price, A. H. and Whalley, W. R. 2008. A gradual rather than abrupt increase in soil strength gives better root penetration of strong layers. Plant and Soil. 307, pp. 235-242.

The effect of soil strength on yield of wheat

Whalley, W. R., Watts, C. W., Gregory, A. S., Mooney, S. J., Clark, L. J. and Whitmore, A. P. 2008. The effect of soil strength on yield of wheat. Plant and Soil. 306, pp. 237-247.

Farm Level Optimal Water Management: Assistant for Irrigation under Deficit (FLOW-AID)

Whalley, W. R. 2008. Farm Level Optimal Water Management: Assistant for Irrigation under Deficit (FLOW-AID). RRA Newsletter. 26, p. 2.

Physical resilience of soil to field compaction and the interactions with plant growth and microbial community structure

Gregory, A. S., Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Kuan, H. L., Griffiths, B. S., Hallett, P. D. and Whitmore, A. P. 2007. Physical resilience of soil to field compaction and the interactions with plant growth and microbial community structure. European Journal of Soil Science. 58 (6), pp. 1221-1232.

A porous-matrix sensor to measure the matric potential of soil water in the field

Whalley, W. R., Clark, L. J., Take, W. A., Bird, N. R. A., Leech, P. K., Cope, R. E. and Watts, C. W. 2007. A porous-matrix sensor to measure the matric potential of soil water in the field. European Journal of Soil Science. 58 (1), pp. 18-25.

Prediction of the penetrometer resistance of soils with models with few parameters

Whalley, W. R., To, J., Kay, B. D. and Whitmore, A. P. 2007. Prediction of the penetrometer resistance of soils with models with few parameters. Geoderma. 137, pp. 370-377.

Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains

Zhao, F-J., Lopez-Bellido, F. J., Gray, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Clark, L. J. and McGrath, S. P. 2007. Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains. Science of the Total Environment. 372, pp. 433-439.

Genetically modified hydrographs: what can grass genetics do for temperate catchment hydrology?

Macleod, C. J. A., Binley, A., Clark, L. J., Hawkins, S. L., Humphreys, M. W., King, I. P., Scholefield, D., Turner, L. B., Whalley, W. R. and Haygarth, P. M. 2007. Genetically modified hydrographs: what can grass genetics do for temperate catchment hydrology? European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2007, Vienna, Austria, 16-20 April 2007.

Genetically modified hydrographs: what can grass genetics do for temperate catchment hydrology?

Macleod, C. J. A., Binley, A., Clark, L. J., Hawkins, S. L., Humphreys, M. W., Turner, L. B., Whalley, W. R. and Haygarth, P. M. 2007. Genetically modified hydrographs: what can grass genetics do for temperate catchment hydrology? Hydrological Processes. 21 (16), pp. 2217-2221.

Grass roots to improve the management of soil-water

Humphreys, M. W., Binley, A., Clark, L. J., Hawkins, S. L., King, I. P., Macleod, C. J. A., Turner, L. B., Whalley, W. R. and Haygarth, P. M. 2007. Grass roots to improve the management of soil-water. Hopkins, J. J., Duncan, A. J., McCracken, D. I., Peel, S. and Tallowin, J. R. B. (ed.) 'High Value Grassland: providing biodiversity, a clean environment and premium products': Proceedings BGS/BES/BSAS Conference, Keele University, Staffs, 17-19 April 2007. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium, 38. pp. 249-252

Calculation of the compression index and precompression stress from soil compression test data

Gregory, A. S., Whalley, W. R., Watts, C. W., Bird, N. R. A., Hallett, P. D. and Whitmore, A. P. 2006. Calculation of the compression index and precompression stress from soil compression test data. Soil & Tillage Research. 89, pp. 45-57.

Does soil strength play a role in wheat yield losses caused by soil drying?

Whalley, W. R., Clark, L. J., Gowing, D. J. G., Cope, R. E., Lodge, R. J. and Leeds-Harrison, P. B. 2006. Does soil strength play a role in wheat yield losses caused by soil drying? Plant and Soil. 280, pp. 279-290.

Sensing the physical and nutritional status of the root environment in the field: a review of progress and opportunities

Clark, L. J., Gowing, D. J. G., Lark, R. M., Leeds-Harrison, P. B., Miller, A. J., Wells, D. M., Whalley, W. R. and Whitmore, A. P. 2005. Sensing the physical and nutritional status of the root environment in the field: a review of progress and opportunities. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 143, pp. 347-358.

Biological and technical processes that mediate micro-aggregation of clays

Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Brookes, P. C., Devonshire, B. J. and Whitmore, A. P. 2005. Biological and technical processes that mediate micro-aggregation of clays. Soil Science. 170, pp. 573-583.

Novel sensors for measuring soil nitrogen, water availability and strength

Miller, A. J., Wells, D. M., Braven, J., Ebdon, L., Le Goff, T., Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Gowing, D. J. G. and Leeds-Harrison, P. B. 2003. Novel sensors for measuring soil nitrogen, water availability and strength. Proceedings BCPC International Congress - Crop Science and Technology, Glasgow, 10-12 November 2003 . pp. 1107-1114

How do roots penetrate strong soil?

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R. and Barraclough, P. B. 2003. How do roots penetrate strong soil? Plant and Soil. 255, pp. 93-104.

Root penetration of strong soil in rainfed lowland rice: comparison of laboratory screens with field performance

Clark, L. J., Cope, R. E., Whalley, W. R., Barraclough, P. B. and Wade, L. J. 2002. Root penetration of strong soil in rainfed lowland rice: comparison of laboratory screens with field performance. Field Crops Research. 76, pp. 189-198.

Aggregation of a soil with different cropping histories following the addition of organic materials

Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Longstaff, D. J., White, Robin P., Brookes, P. C. and Whitmore, A. P. 2001. Aggregation of a soil with different cropping histories following the addition of organic materials. Soil Use and Management. 17 (4), pp. 263-268.

Partial mechanical impedance can increase the turgor of seedling pea roots

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R. and Barraclough, P. B. 2001. Partial mechanical impedance can increase the turgor of seedling pea roots. Journal of Experimental Botany. 52, pp. 167-171.

The effect of iron concentration, hindered settling, saturating cation and aggregate density of clays on the size distribution determined by gravitation X-ray sedimentometry

Watts, C. W., Whalley, W. R., Bird, N. R. A. and Ashman, M. R. 2000. The effect of iron concentration, hindered settling, saturating cation and aggregate density of clays on the size distribution determined by gravitation X-ray sedimentometry. European Journal of Soil Science. 51 (2), pp. 305-311.

How should plant breeders screen for rice root growth through strong soil?

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Price, A. H., Wade, L. J. and Barraclough, P. B. 1999. How should plant breeders screen for rice root growth through strong soil?

Screening rice root growth under mechanical impedance. Final Technical Report of DFID Project No. R6373

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Dexter, A. R. and Barraclough, P. B. 1999. Screening rice root growth under mechanical impedance. Final Technical Report of DFID Project No. R6373.

Maximum axial root growth pressure in pea seedlings: effects of measurement techniques and cultivars

Clark, L. J., Bengough, A. G., Whalley, W. R., Dexter, A. R. and Barraclough, P. B. 1999. Maximum axial root growth pressure in pea seedlings: effects of measurement techniques and cultivars. Plant and Soil. 209, pp. 101-109.

Evaluation of agar and agarose gels for studying mechanical impedance in rice roots

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Leigh, R. A., Dexter, A. R. and Barraclough, P. B. 1999. Evaluation of agar and agarose gels for studying mechanical impedance in rice roots. Plant and Soil. 207, pp. 37-43.

Evaluation of techniques for screening the ability of rice roots to grow against mechanical impedance

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Cope, R. E., Aphale, S. L., Barraclough, P. B., Dexter, A. R. and Leigh, R. A. 1997. Evaluation of techniques for screening the ability of rice roots to grow against mechanical impedance. Abstracts 2nd Tansley Conference Putting Plant Physiology On The Map, Bangor, 1-3 April 1997 . pp. 12

The effect of mechanical impedance on root growth in rice

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Cope, R. E., Dexter, A. R., Barraclough, P. B. and Leigh, R. A. 1996. The effect of mechanical impedance on root growth in rice. Abstracts 5th Symposium of the International Society of Root Research, Clemson, 14-18 July 1996 . pp. 139

Complete mechanical impedance increases the turgor of cells in the apex of pea roots

Clark, L. J., Whalley, W. R., Dexter, A. R., Barraclough, P. B. and Leigh, R. A. 1996. Complete mechanical impedance increases the turgor of cells in the apex of pea roots. Plant, Cell and Environment. 19 (9), pp. 1099-1102.

Physiological and cellular basis for the growth of rice roots through compacted soil

Clark, L. J., Barraclough, P. B., Leigh, R. A., Whalley, W. R. and Dexter, A. R. 1994. Physiological and cellular basis for the growth of rice roots through compacted soil. Overseas Development Administration (ODA) London.

The temperature-dependence of the maximum axial growth pressure of roots of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

Whalley, W. R., Clark, L. J. and Dexter, A. R. 1994. The temperature-dependence of the maximum axial growth pressure of roots of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant and Soil. 163, pp. 211-215.

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