Three LysM effectors of Zymoseptoria tritici collectively disarm chitin‐triggered plant immunity

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Tian, H., MacKenzie, C. I., Rodriguez-Moreno, L., Van den Berg, G. C. M., Chen, H., Rudd, J. J., Mesters, J. R. and Thomma, B. P. H. J. 2021. Three LysM effectors of Zymoseptoria tritici collectively disarm chitin‐triggered plant immunity. Molecular Plant Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13055

AuthorsTian, H., MacKenzie, C. I., Rodriguez-Moreno, L., Van den Berg, G. C. M., Chen, H., Rudd, J. J., Mesters, J. R. and Thomma, B. P. H. J.
Abstract

Chitin is a major structural component of fungal cell walls and acts as a microbe‐associated molecular pattern (MAMP) that, on recognition by a plant host, triggers the activation of immune responses. To avoid the activation of these responses, the Septoria tritici blotch (STB) pathogen of wheat, Zymoseptoria tritici, secretes LysM effector proteins. Previously, the LysM effectors Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM were shown to protect fungal hyphae against host chitinases. Furthermore, Mg3LysM, but not Mg1LysM, was shown to suppress chitin‐induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Whereas initially a third LysM effector gene was disregarded as a presumed pseudogene, we now provide functional data to show that this gene also encodes a LysM effector, named Mgx1LysM, that is functional during wheat colonization. While Mg3LysM confers a major contribution to Z. tritici virulence, Mgx1LysM and Mg1LysM contribute to Z. tritici virulence with smaller effects. All three LysM effectors display partial functional redundancy. We furthermore demonstrate that Mgx1LysM binds chitin, suppresses the chitin‐induced ROS burst, and is able to protect fungal hyphae against chitinase hydrolysis. Finally, we demonstrate that Mgx1LysM is able to undergo chitin‐induced polymerization. Collectively, our data show that Z. tritici utilizes three LysM effectors to disarm chitin‐triggered wheat immunity.

KeywordsChitin; Effector; LysM; Virulence; Zymoseptoria
Year of Publication2021
JournalMolecular Plant Pathology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13055
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Funder project or codeDesigning Future Wheat (DFW) [ISPG]
Publisher's version
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online01 Apr 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted03 Mar 2021
PublisherWiley
ISSN1464-6722

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