The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure: Description and illustrative analysis

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Hafner, S. D., Pacholski, A., Bittman, S., Burchill, W., Bussink, W., Chantigny, M., Carozzi, M., Genermont, S., Hani, C., Hansen, M. N., Huijsmans, J., Hunt, D., Kupper, T., Lanigan, G., Loubet, B., Misselbrook, T. H., Meisinger, J. J., Neftel, A., Nyord, T., Pedersen, S. V., Sintermann, J., Thompson, R. B., Vermeulen, B., Vestergaard, A., Voylokov, P., Williams, J. R. and Sommer, S. G. 2017. The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure: Description and illustrative analysis. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 258 (15 August), pp. 66-79.

AuthorsHafner, S. D., Pacholski, A., Bittman, S., Burchill, W., Bussink, W., Chantigny, M., Carozzi, M., Genermont, S., Hani, C., Hansen, M. N., Huijsmans, J., Hunt, D., Kupper, T., Lanigan, G., Loubet, B., Misselbrook, T. H., Meisinger, J. J., Neftel, A., Nyord, T., Pedersen, S. V., Sintermann, J., Thompson, R. B., Vermeulen, B., Vestergaard, A., Voylokov, P., Williams, J. R. and Sommer, S. G.
Abstract

Ammonia (NH⁠3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH⁠3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH⁠3 emission from field-applied manure has been measured in many studies over the past few decades. In this work, we facilitate the use of these data by collecting
and organizing them in the ALFAM2 database. In this paper we describe the development of the database and summarise its contents, quantify effects of application methods and other variables on emission using a data subset, and discuss challenges for data analysis and model development. The database contains measurements of emission, manure and soil properties, weather, application technique, and other variables for 1899 plots from 22 research institutes in 12 countries. Data on five manure types (cattle, pig, mink, poultry, mixed, as well as sludge and “other”) applied to three types of crops (grass, small grains, maize, as well as stubble and bare soil) are included. Application methods represented in the database include broadcast, trailing hose, trailing shoe (narrow band application), and open slot injection. Cattle manure application to grassland was the most common combination, and analysis of this subset (with dry matter (DM) limited to <15%) was carried out using mixed- and fixed-effects models in order to quantify effects of management and environment on ammonia emission, and to highlight challenges for use of the database. Measured emission from cattle slurry ranged from <1% to 130% of applied ammonia after 48 h. Results showed clear, albeit variable, reductions in NH⁠3 emission due to trailing hose, trailing shoe, and open slot injection of slurry compared to broadcast application. There was evidence of positive effects of air temperature and wind speed on NH⁠3 emission, and limited evidence of effects of slurry DM. However, random-effects coefficients for differences among research institutes were among the largest model coefficients, and showed a deviation from the mean response by more than 100% in some cases. The source of these institute differences could not be determined with certainty, but there is some evidence that they are related to differences in soils, or differences in application or measurement methods The ALFAM2 database should be useful for development and evaluation
of both emission factors and emission models, but users need to recognize the limitations caused by confounding variables, imbalance in the dataset, and dependence among observations from the same institute. Variation among measurements and in reported variables highlights the importance of international agreement on how NH⁠3 emission should be measured, along with necessary types of supporting data and standard protocols for their measurement. Both are needed in order to produce more accurate and useful ammonia emission measurements. Expansion of the ALFAM2 database will continue, and readers are invited to contact the corresponding author for information on data submission. The latest version of the database is available at http://www.alfam.dk.

KeywordsManure; Slurry; Cattle; Pig; Ammonia; Emission
Year of Publication2017
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Journal citation258 (15 August), pp. 66-79
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.11.027
Open accessPublished as non-open access
FunderMinisteriet for Fødevarer, Landbrug og Fiskeri—NaturErhvervstyrelsen
Funder project or codeGrønt udviklingsog demonstration program (Gylle-IT)
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online27 Dec 2017
Publication process dates
Accepted22 Nov 2017
PublisherElsevier Science Bv
Copyright licensePublisher copyright
ISSN0168-1923

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