Spatial and Temporal Stability of Weed Patches in Cereal Fields under Direct Drilling and Harrow Tillage

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Izquierdo, J., Milne, A. E., Recasens, J., Royo-Esnal, A., Torra, J., Webster, R. and Baraibar, B. 2020. Spatial and Temporal Stability of Weed Patches in Cereal Fields under Direct Drilling and Harrow Tillage. Agronomy. 10 (4), p. 452. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040452

AuthorsIzquierdo, J., Milne, A. E., Recasens, J., Royo-Esnal, A., Torra, J., Webster, R. and Baraibar, B.
Abstract

The adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) techniques by farmers is changing the dynamics of weed communities in cereal fields and so potentially their spatial distribution.
These changes can challenge the use of site-specific weed control, which is based on the accurate location of weed patches for spraying. We studied the e ect of two types of CA (direct drilling and harrow-tilled to 20 cm) on weed patches in a three-year survey in four direct-drilled and three
harrow-tilled commercial fields in Catalonia (North-eastern Spain). The area of the ground covered by weeds (hereafter called “weed cover”) was estimated at 96 to 122 points measured in each year in each field, in 50 cm  50 cm quadrats placed in a 10 m  10 m grid in spring. Bromus diandrus, Lolium rigidum, and Papaver rhoeas were the main weed species. The weed cover and degree of aggregation for all species varied both between and within fields, regardless of the kind of tillage. Under both forms of soil management all three were aggregated in elongated patterns in the direction of trac. Bromus was generally more aggregated than Lolium, and both were more aggregated than Papaver. Patches were stable over time for only two harrow-tilled fields with Lolium and one direct-drilled field with Bromus, but not in the other fields. Spatial stability of the weeds was more
pronounced in the direction of trac. Herbicide applications, crop rotation, and trac seem to a ect weed populations strongly within fields, regardless of the soil management. We conclude that site-specific herbicides can be applied to control these species because they are aggregated, although
the patches would have to be identified afresh in each season.

KeywordsNo-till ; Weed spatial distribution; Wheat ; Barely; Lolium rigidum; Bromus diandrus; Papaver rhoeas; Semivariogram; Cross-correlation; Weed maps; Statistical methods
Year of Publication2020
JournalAgronomy
Journal citation10 (4), p. 452
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040452
Open accessPublished as green open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Funder project or codeS2N - Soil to Nutrition - Work package 3 (WP3) - Sustainable intensification - optimisation at multiple scales
BBS/E/C/000I0100
Publisher's version
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online25 Mar 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted18 Mar 2020
PublisherMDPI
ISSN2073-4395

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