Nonrandom chromosome variation and morphogenic potential in cell-lines of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

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Winfield, M. O., Schmitt, M., Lorz, H., Davey, M. R. and Karp, A. 1995. Nonrandom chromosome variation and morphogenic potential in cell-lines of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome. 38 (5), pp. 869-878.

AuthorsWinfield, M. O., Schmitt, M., Lorz, H., Davey, M. R. and Karp, A.

A cytogenetical analysis of 18 cell lines, 9 microspore derived, 6 anther derived, and 3 immature-embryo derived, of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varying in their morphogenic potential was undertaken. Chromosome variation, both structural and numerical, was detected in all lines studied. Variation was present and, in some cases quite extensive, in the earliest samples taken (only 12 weeks after initiation of the suspensions). Within any culture, the pattern and extent of variation changed throughout the course of the study and cells with a euploid constitution generally decreased in frequency with culture age. Among the nine microspore-derived suspensions, morphogenic lines generally showed a more restricted range of chromosome numbers and higher proportions of euploid cells than nonmorphogenic lines. The patterns of distribution of chromosome numbers among the anther-derived cultures were similar to those of the microspore-derived lines but the correspondence between instability and regenerative capacity was less. The immature embryo derived lines, which were neither regenerable nor morphogenic, were all unstable. The anther-derived lines were sampled over several months to determine whether loss of morphogenic potential was related to changes in chromosome instability of specific lines. Analysis of the ''elite'' line F1.7, initially capable of regenerating green plants, showed that substantial decreases in the frequencies of normal euploid cells (from 45 to 5%) occurred over the period when morphogenic capacity was lost. However, whether the chromosome instability resulted in loss of morphogenicity or vice versa was not clarified. C-banding analyses of lines F1.7 and C82d indicated that instability was not random with respect to the three genomes (A, B, and D) of wheat nor to the different chromosomes within the genomes. Chromosomes of the B genome were most often lost or involved in rearrangements, with breakpoints located at, or near, the heterochromatic blocks. Because of the heterogeneity of the cell lines, extensive analyses of large numbers of cells would be required before it would be possible to determine whether loss of morphogenic potential arises as a result of specific chromosome loss(es).

KeywordsSomaclonal Variation; Wheat; Chromosomes; Heterochromatin; Cell Cultures; hordeum-vulgare-l; plant-regeneration; tissue-culture; high-frequency; Suspensions; karyotype; instability
Year of Publication1995
Journal citation38 (5), pp. 869-878
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1139/g95-115
Open accessPublished as non-open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

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