G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Gritsch, C., Wan, Y., Mitchell, R. A. C., Shewry, P. R., Hanley, S. J. and Karp, A. 2015. G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (20), pp. 6447-6459. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv358

AuthorsGritsch, C., Wan, Y., Mitchell, R. A. C., Shewry, P. R., Hanley, S. J. and Karp, A.

Willows (Salix spp.) are important as a potential feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. Previous work suggested that reaction wood (RW) formation could be a desirable trait for biofuel production in willows as it is associated with increased glucose yields, but willow RW has not been characterized for cell wall components. Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) proteins are highly up-regulated in RW of poplars and are considered to be involved in cell adhesion and cellulose biosynthesis. COBRA genes are involved in anisotropic cell expansion by modulating the orientation of cellulose microfibril deposition. This study determined the temporal and spatial deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of the tension wood (TW) component of willow RW and compared it with opposite wood (OW) and normal wood (NW) using specific antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization. Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1–4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself. Of particular interest was that the G-layer itself can be highly enriched in (1–4)-β-D-galactan, especially in G-fibres where the G-layer is still thickening, which contrasts with previous studies in poplar. Only xylan showed a similar distribution in TW, OW, and NW, being restricted to the secondary cell wall layers. SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance. A model of polysaccharides distribution in developing willow G-fibre cells is presented.

Year of Publication2015
JournalJournal of Experimental Botany
Journal citation66 (20), pp. 6447-6459
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv358
PubMed ID26220085
PubMed Central IDPMC4588891
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
National Science Foundation
Funder project or codeCropping Carbon (CC) [ISPG]
The BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC): Perennial Bioenergy Crops Programme [2009-2014]
Bioenergy value chains: Whole systems analysis and optimisation
Maximising carbon harvest from perennial crops
Integrating carbon systems
NSF Plant Genome Program DBI-0421683
Publisher's version
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online28 Jul 2015
Publication process dates
Accepted25 Jun 2015
Copyright licenseCC BY
PublisherOxford University Press (OUP)

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