Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

De Jong, F., Hanley, S. J., Beale, M. H. and Karp, A. 2015. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar. Phytochemistry. 117 (September), pp. 90-97.

AuthorsDe Jong, F., Hanley, S. J., Beale, M. H. and Karp, A.
Abstract

Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of fiavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of L-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALS in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow.

KeywordsL-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); Salix viminalis (willow); Subcellular localisation; Enzyme kinetics; Gene expression; Phenylpropanoid metabolism; Gene family
Year of Publication2015
JournalPhytochemistry
Journal citation117 (September), pp. 90-97
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.06.005
PubMed ID26070140
PubMed Central IDPMC4560161
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Funder project or codeCropping Carbon (CC) [ISPG]
Bioenergy value chains: Whole systems analysis and optimisation
The BBSRC Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC): Perennial Bioenergy Crops Programme [2009-2015]
Maximising carbon harvest from perennial crops
Integrating carbon systems
Publisher's version
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online09 Jun 2015
Publication process dates
Accepted02 Jun 2015
Copyright licenseCC BY
PublisherElsevier
Elsevier
ISSN0031-9422

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