Evaluating Effective Particle Size Distributions of Cohesive Sediment under Varying Shear Stress and Bed Configurations in a Rotating Annular Flume

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Maltauro, R., Stone, M., Collins, A. L. and Krishnappan, B.G. 2024. Evaluating Effective Particle Size Distributions of Cohesive Sediment under Varying Shear Stress and Bed Configurations in a Rotating Annular Flume. Water. 16 (4), p. 546. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040546

AuthorsMaltauro, R., Stone, M., Collins, A. L. and Krishnappan, B.G.
Abstract

Despite the environmental significance and ecological importance of cohesive sediment (<63 μm), improved knowledge of how effective particle size distributions (EPSDs) change due to flocculation under different conditions of shear stress and bed configuration is required to better understand in situ transport and storage properties and refine existing sediment transport models. Here, a rotating annular flume was used to (i) evaluate EPSDs under different shear stress and bed types (plane-impermeable and -porous gravel bed) for deposition and erosion experiments; (ii) assess flocculation processes with EPSDs; and (iii) compare flume and field EPSDs observations with respect to measured shear stress. While deposition experiments over the impermeable bed led to an EPSD equilibrium in all shear conditions (constant EPSD percentiles), the ingress experiment over the gravel bed resulted in varying EPSDs, and no equilibrium was observed. During the erosion experiment, deposited flocs became coarser due to bed consolidation, and no particle breakage was observed once particles were resuspended. The ingress experiment showed high efficiency in entrapping suspended particles (~95% of initial suspended sediment), and no exfiltration or resuspension was recorded. Flocculation ratios calculated using EPSDs showed negative correlations with shear stress, indicating that increasing flow energy promoted flocculation for flume and field observations. Our results showed that both suspended and bed sediments can flocculate into coarser flocs that, in turn, are preferentially ingressed and stored in the substrate when in suspension. These findings have important implications regarding legacy impacts, as substrate-stored particles can potentially extend the effects of upstream landscape disturbances.

KeywordsFine sediment; Gravel bed; Freshwater flocculation; Fine sediment infiltration; Ingress
Year of Publication2024
JournalWater
Journal citation16 (4), p. 546
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040546
Web address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/16/4/546
Open accessPublished as ‘gold’ (paid) open access
FunderBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Funder project or codeResilient Farming Futures: Detecting agroecosystem ‘resilience’ using novel data science methods
NSERC Discovery Grant 481 RGPIN-2020- 06963
forWater NSERC Network for Forested Drinking Water Source Protection Technologies
Publisher's version
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online09 Feb 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted07 Feb 2024
PublisherMDPI
ISSN2073-4441

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