Arsenic uptake and metabolism in plants

A - Papers appearing in refereed journals

Zhao, F-J., Ma, J. F., Meharg, A. A. and McGrath, S. P. 2009. Arsenic uptake and metabolism in plants. New Phytologist. 181 (4), pp. 777-794.

AuthorsZhao, F-J., Ma, J. F., Meharg, A. A. and McGrath, S. P.
Abstract

Arsenic (As) is an element that is nonessential for and toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination in the environment occurs in many regions, and, depending on environmental factors, its accumulation in food crops may pose a health risk to humans. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of As uptake and metabolism in plants is reviewed here. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transporters. A number of the aquaporin nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are able to transport arsenite, the predominant form of As in reducing environments. In rice (Oryza sativa), arsenite uptake shares the highly efficient silicon (Si) pathway of entry to root cells and efflux towards the xylem. In root cells arsenate is rapidly reduced to arsenite, which is effluxed to the external medium, complexed by thiol peptides or translocated to shoots. One type of arsenate reductase has been identified, but its in planta functions remain to be investigated. Some fern species in the Pteridaceae family are able to hyperaccumulate As in above-ground tissues. Hyperaccumulation appears to involve enhanced arsenate uptake, decreased arsenite-thiol complexation and arsenite efflux to the external medium, greatly enhanced xylem translocation of arsenite, and vacuolar sequestration of arsenite in fronds. Current knowledge gaps and future research directions are also identified.

KeywordsPlant Sciences
Year of Publication2009
JournalNew Phytologist
Journal citation181 (4), pp. 777-794
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02716.x
PubMed ID19207683
Open accessPublished as non-open access
FunderMinistry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan
Funder project or codeSEF
ISSN0028646X
PublisherWiley
Grant IDIPG-0006
17078008

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